1. I write as a faculty union leader whose union, the United Faculty of Florida, represents full-time faculty at universities and community colleges as well as teaching assistants, but not part-time faculty. As a former department chair, I also exploited many adjuncts to teach introductory courses.

2. Ernst Benjamin, “Improving Teaching: Tenure Is Not the Problem, It’s the Solution,” Table 3: Change in Faculty Distribution by Type of Appointment, 1975 and 1993. American Association of University Professors. http://www.aaup.org/fnebta3.htm (23 July 1999).

3. “The Status of Non-Tenure-Track Faculty.” Report adopted by AAUP Committee G, p. 2, June 1993. http://www.aaup.org.rbnonten.htm (23 July 1999).

4. Benjamin, Table 3; “Status,” p. 2.

5. Judith M. Gappa and David W. Leslie, The Invisible Faculty: Improving the Status of Part-Timers in Higher Education (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1993) 125-128.

6. Benjamin, Table 3.

7. Benjamin, Table 3.

8. “Professional News,” NEA Advocate, June 1998: 5.

9. “Part-Time Faculty: Quality Issues,” NEA Update, Volume 4, Number 2, March 1998. Figure 5, page 3. http://www.nea.org/he/heupdate/index.html (5 August 1999).

10. On average, part–time faculty now spend seven years at the same institution. Remarks by Ernst Benjamin, Associate General Secretary and Research Director, AAUP, at Workshop on Part-time Issues, at the Conference of Scholars, Artists and Writers for Social Justice, Washington D.C., May 1998.

11. “Going Adjunct,” Salon, p. 2 (May 11, 1999); http://www.salonmagazine.com/it/feature/1998/09/17feature2.html; Gappa and Leslie, passim.

12. “Status,” p. 4.

13. “Going Adjunct,” p. 1.

14. Elliott A. Krause, Death of the Guilds: Professions, States, and the Advance of Capitalism, 1930 to the Present (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1996) 73.

15. Benjamin, p. 2; “Statement from the Conference on the Growing Use of Part-Time and Adjunct Faculty,” AAUP, 1997 http://www.aaup.org/ptconf.htm (23 July 1999).

16. Gary Rhoades, Managed Professionals: Unionized Faculty and Restructuring Academic Labor (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1998) 136.

17. Benjamin, Table 2.

18. Rhoades, p. 136.

19. Benjamin, p. 2.

20. Gappa and Leslie, pp. 47-64.

21. AAUP “Statement from the Conference,” p. 4; “Part-Time Faculty: Quality Issues,” Figure 13.

22. Denise K. Magner, “‘Postdocs,’ Seeing Little Way Into the Academic Job Market, Seek Better Terms in the Lab,” Chronicle of Higher Education 7 August 1998: A10-A12.

23. James Sterngold, “Betwixt and Between: Are teaching assistants employees or are they students? That is the question,” The New York Times, Education Life, 1 August 1999, 17-18, 20.

24. Andrew Ross, “The Labor Behind the Cult of Work,” Will Teach for Food: Academic Labor in Crisis, ed. Cary Nelson (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1997) 137-143.

25. Mark Zepezauer and Arthur Naiman, Take the Rich Off Welfare (Tucson: Odonian Press, 1996) 6-10.

26. Zepezauer and Naiman, pp. 115-116.

27. In his mordantly amusing analysis of this situation, Bill Readings argues, “University administrators, government officials, and even radical critics now more and more often speak of the University in terms of ‘excellence’ instead of in terms of ‘culture’”...My argument is that this new interest in the pursuit of excellence indicates a change in the University’s function. The University no longer has to safeguard and propagate national culture, because the nation-state is no longer the major site at which capital reproduces itself.”

“...The University thus shifts from being an ideological apparatus of the nation-state to being a relatively independent bureaucratic system. The economics of globalization mean that the University is no longer called upon to uphold national prestige by producing and legitimating national culture. The University is thus analogous to a number of other institutions – such as national airline carriers – that face massive reductions in foreseeable funding from increasingly weakened states, which are no longer the privileged sites of investment of popular will.” Bill Readings, The University in Ruins (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1996) 13, 14.

28. Vincent Tirelli, “Adjuncts and More Adjuncts: Labor Segmentation and the Transformation of Higher Education,” Chalk Lines: The Politics of Work in the Managed University, ed. Randy Martin (Durham: Duke University Press, 1998) 186.

29. Harry Braverman, Labor and Monopoly Capital: The Degradation of Work in the Twentieth Century (New York: Monthly Review Press, 1974).

30. June Nash, preface to Anthropology of Work Review 15, No. 1 (Spring 1994): 1, qtd. in Tirelli, p. 186.

31. Tirelli, p. 188.

32. Tirelli, p. 188.

33. Sterngold, p. 17.

34. “Footnotes,” Chronicle of Higher Education 2 July 1999: A12.

35. Ali Zaidi, “Adjuncts Arise,” Z Magazine October 1998: 19.

36. Richard Moser, “The New Academic Labor System and the New Academic Citizenship,” Radical Historians Newsletter Number 80, May 1999: 13.

37. Moser, p. 13.

38. “What is COCAL?” 1999. http://omega.cc.umb.edu/~cocal/whatis.htm (23 July 1999).

39. Lawrence C. Soley, Leasing the Ivory Tower: The Corporate Takeover of Academia (Boston: South End Press, 1995).

40. Zaidi.

41. “Status,” p. 6.

42. “Coverstory,” The Adjunct Advocate: The Magazine for Adjunct College Educators May/June 1999. http://www.sai.com/adjunct/coverstory.html (24 July 1999).

43. Virginia Wright Wexman, letter to Society for Cinema Studies members, SCS-L July 1999 Mailing: Part 1, p. 11. http://www.cinemastudies.org (21 July 1999).

44. Wexman, p. 11.

45. Bruce Simon, “Introduction to Striking Back: Academic Labor in Action,” Workplace: The Journal for Academic Labor, Volume 2, No. 1, April 1999. http://www.workplace-gsc.com/workplace2-1/simon.html (6 August 1999).

46. Zaidi, summarizing a speech by Barbara Bowen of the Professional Staff Congress at CUNY during a labor conference at the CUNY Graduate Center in April 1998.

47. Moser, pp. 1, 12.

48. Ross, p. 138. See also the other essays in “A Yale Strike Dossier” in Nelson, ed., especially Rick Wolff’s economic analysis.

49. Michael Berube, “The Blessed of the Earth,” Nelson, ed., p. 158.

50. Ross, pp. 142-143.

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