Thanks to Grigoris Daskalogrigorakis for his helpful comments.
5. For more on the history of Hong Kong cinema, see Lent, pp. 92-121; Fredric Dannen and Barry Long, Hong Kong Babylon: An Insiders Guide to the Hollywood of the East (New York: Hyperion/Miramax, 1997), pp. 1-55; Paul Fonoroff, “Hong Kong Cinema,” in Encyclopedia of Chinese Film, eds. Yingjin Zhang and Zhiwei Xiao (New York: Routledge, 1998), pp. 31-46; Lisa Odham Stokes and Michael Hoover, City on Fire: Hong Kong Cinema (New York: Verso, 1999); and Teo, Hong Kong Cinema.
8. In great demand, Doyle has worked not only for other directors in Hong Kong, but for filmmakers in other industries as well: Chen Kaiges Temptress Moon (1996) in China and Park Ki-Yongs Motel Cactus (1997) in South Korea, for example. He made his Hollywood debut with Gus Van Sants ill-advised 1998 remake of Psycho. Doyle has also published books of his photographs and writings, such as A Cloud in Trousers (Santa Monica, Ca.: Smart Art Press, 1998).
13. There seems to be some disagreement whether the kung fu film is a kind of wuxia pian or a separate category. Lau Shing-Hon refers to both kung fu and swordplay movies as wuxia pian, but Teo reserves the term wuxia pian exclusively for the swashbucklers, which he says were “clearly delineated” from kung fu until the two genres were combined in the 1970s, when martial heroes were shown fighting both armed and unarmed. See Lau Shing-Hon, Introduction, A Study of the Hong Kong Martial Arts Film (Hong Kong: Hong Kong International Film Festival, 1980), p. 3; and Teo, pp. 98-99.
17. For more on nationalism in the films of Bruce Lee, see Tony Rayns, “Bruce Lee: Narcissism and Nationalism,” in A Study of the Hong Kong Martial Arts Film, pp. 109-12; and Teo, pp. 110-21. By “classical” martial-arts films, I mean in particular those textually conservative wuxia pian produced by Hong Kong before the 1980s, as well as some later examples, such as Jackie Chans star vehicles. Once the 1997 issue came into play, the conflation of nationalism and violence became too contradictory not to rupture the on-screen content (with cross-dressing, surrealistic geysers of blood, bodies exploding cataclysmically, etc.) of most martial-arts movies, especially Tsui Harks and Ching Siu-Tungs.
24. Brigitte Lin (Chinese name: Lin Ching-Hsia) is originally from Taiwan and speaks her voice-overs in Mandarin. Since Hong Kongs local Chinese dialect is Cantonese, Lins character embodies a Chinese identity larger than just Hong Kong. For an appreciation of Lins career, see Howard Hampton, “Venus, Armed,” Film Comment, 32, No. 5 (September-October 1996), pp. 42-48.
26. Most Hong Kong films are given titles in both Chinese and English for domestic consumption, and sometimes, the two titles have little to do with each other. However, Fallen Angels is more or less a literal translation of the Chinese title, (in Mandarin/pinyin:) Duoluo Tianshi, except that the words have less of a religious resonance in Hong Kong.
27. As a heterosexual viewer, I never cared whether Yiu-Fai and Po-Wing ever patched up their relationship. However, a gay friend of mine told me that he empathized with the two characters and hoped that the film would have them end up together.
29. Although Wong is very critical of Yiu-Fai and Po-Wings particular relationship—because their personalities are so incompatible— I dont think that Happy Together intends to be critical of gay relationships in general. After all, Yiu-Fai never renounces his homosexuality.