[1] Ilan Avisar, Screening the Holocaust: Cinema’s Images of the Unimaginable (Bloomington IN: Indiana University Press, 1988), pp. 134-48

[2] Gerd Gemünden, “Brecht in Hollywood: Hangmen Also Die and the Anti-Nazi Film,” TDR 43 (4) (Winter 1999): 65-7. The earliest book in English to conflate Nazism with sexual perversion was Samuel Igra’s Germany’s National Vice (London: Quality Press, Ltd., 1945).

[3] Richard Plant, The Pink Triangle: The Nazi War Against Homosexuals (New York: Henry Holt and Co., 1986), p. 16.

[4]   Jean-Pierre Geuens, “Pornography and the Holocaust: The Last Transgression,” Film Criticism 20 (1-2) (Fall-Winter 1995-96): 119.

[5] Gerhard Falk and Thomas S. Weinberg, “Sadomasochism and Popular Western Culture,” in S and M: Studies in Sadomasochism, Thomas S. Weinberg and G. W. Levi Kamel, eds. (Buffalo, NY: Prometheus Books, 1983), pp. 137-144; Lynn S. Chancer, Sadomasochism in Everyday Life (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers UP, 1992), p. 21.

[6] R. von Krafft-Ebing, Psychopathia Sexualis (New York: Stein and Day, 1965), pp. 53-86.

[7] Sigmund Freud, The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud (New York: Modern Library, 1938), p. 570.

[8] Sigmund Freud, “‘A Child is Being Beaten’—A Contribution to the Study of the Origin of Sexual Perversions,” The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud (London: The Hogarth Press, 1919), vol. 17, pp. 175-204.

[9] Lynn S. Chancer, Sadomasochism in Everyday Life (New Brunswick NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1992), p. 86.

[10] Paul H. Gebhard, “Fetishism and Sadomasochism,” in Dynamics of Deviant Sexuality: Scientific Proceedings of the American Academy of Psychoanalysis, Jules Masserman, ed. (New York: Graune and Stratton, 1969), pp. 71-80.

[11] Laura Mulvey, “Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema,” Screen 16 (3) (Autumn 1975): 6-18.

[12] Gaylyn Studlar, “Masochism and the Perverse Pleasures of the Cinema,” in Movies and Methods, Volume II, Bill Nichols, ed., (Berkeley: U of California Press, 1985), pp. 602-21.

[13] Linda Williams, Hardcore: Power, Pleasure and the Frenzy of the Visible (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1989), p. 204.

[14] Williams, p. 206.

[15] We are grateful to the editors, Chuck Kleinhans and Julia Lesage, for this insight.

[16] King, Different Seasons, 112.

[17] Ibid., 133.

[18] Ibid., 141.

[19] Ibid., 142.

[20] Ibid., 142.

[21] Ibid., 146.

[22] Ibid., 189.

[23] Ibid., 189-190.

[24] Ibid., 163.

[25] Ibid., 165.

[26] Ibid., 197.

[27] Ibid., 139.

[28] Ibid., 178.

[29] Ibid., 206.

[30] Ibid., 199.

[31] Ibid., 207-210.

[32] Todd first visiting Dussander is particular interested in hearing about scenes of German soldiers torturing and “raping all the women they wanted” (Ibid., 130). He asks the old man, “Did you spank any of them? The women? Did you take their clothes off and—” (Ibid., 117).

[33] Dick Bowden denigrates Monica’s mother and grandmother as “Polack[s]” (Ibid., 183). Morris Heisel’s wife, Lydia, is depicted as a “nag,” (Ibid., 230) who cooks “wretched suppers,” (Ibid., 232) and speaks in “bays” and “trills” (Ibid., 249). Morris also “loathes” Lydia’s mother (Ibid., 232). Todd refers to his girlfriends’ mothers as “cunty” (Ibid., 254). Edward French’s wife, Sondra, is described as an “irritating woman!” (Ibid., 260).

[34] Ibid., 135.

[35] Ibid., 135.

[36] Ibid., 221.

[37] Ibid., 225. Todd’s hatred no doubt extends to the “nuclear family” in general, as he envisions perpetrating violence on his father, “I’m going to stick my knife up your fucking nose” (Ibid., 253). Both parents are implicated in the negative influence of adults. See Tony Magistrale, “Inherited Haunts: Stephen King’s Terrible Children,” Extrapolation 26 (1) (Spring 1985): 43-9; and Tom Newhouse, “A Blind Date with Disaster: Adolescent Revolt in the Fiction of Stephen King,” Gary Hoppenstand and Ray B. Brown, eds., The Gothic World of Stephen King: Landscape of Nightmares (Bowling Green, Ohio: Bowling Green State University Popular Press, 1987), p. 49-55.

[38] Tony Magistrale, Landscape of Fear: Stephen King’s American Gothic, (Bowling Green, Ohio: Bowling Green State University Popular Press, 1988), p. 87.

[39] King, Different Seasons, 253.

[40] Ibid., 254.

[41] Ibid., 255.

[42] Ibid., 257.

[43] Ibid., 257.

[44] Ibid., 256.

[45] Keesey, “The Face of Mr. Flip,” 199.

[46] King, Different Seasons, 190.

[47] William Rothman, The Murderous Gaze (Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press, 1982), p. 251.

[48] There is a minor skirmish between Dick and Monica about her accumulation of bills, but Todd’s hatred for her is no longer perceptible. In addition, Monica’s mother and grandmother, Morris Heisel’s wife, Lydia, Lydia’s mother and Edward French’s wife, Sondra, are not referenced.

[49] Dan Scapperotti, “Stephen King’s Apt Pupil: Usual Suspects —Auteur Bryan Singer on Adapting King’s Timely Shocker.” Cinefantastique 30.9 (10) (1998): 20-21.

[50] Jake Wilson, “Apt Pupil,” Urban Cinefile, Friday, November 9, 2001 <http://www.urbancinefile.com/home/view.asp?a=2242&s=Video_files>.

[51] Had the earlier film adaptation been released, which was slated for 1988, but fell through after ten weeks production, we would have seen Todd and Dussander congregate in exterior scenes such as a puppet show and a café! See Gary Wood, “Whatever Happened to Apt Pupil,” Cinefantastique 21 (4) (February 1991): 36-37.

[52] Richard Scheib, “Apt Pupil,” The Science Fiction, Horror and Fantasy Film Review, 1998 <http://members.fortunecity.com/roogulator/horror/aptpupil.htm>.

[53] Paul Emmons, “Apt Pupil,” BigScreen Cinema Guide, 1998 <http://www.bigscreen.com/ReaderReview?movie=AptPupil>.

[54] King, Different Seasons, 189, 206.

[55] Wilson, “Apt Pupil.”

[56] Fred McDonald, “Apt Pupil,” Abingdon College and District Film Society Program Note, November 2, 1998 <http://homepage.ntlworld.com/holtnet/abcdfs/prognote/apt_pupil.pdf>

[57] Wilson, “Apt Pupil.”

[58] Stuart Klawans, “Scream 4: The Holocaust?” Nation, 267 (14) (November, 02 1998): 35.

[59] Mary Russo, The Female Grotesque (New York: Routledge, 1995).

[60] In Vertigo, John makes Judy dress up to resemble Madelein, while in Viridiana, Viridiana’s uncle makes her dress in his late wife’s wedding gown. Compare a similar Pygmalion replication in Devil in the Flesh (Steven Cohen 1998), in which Debbie’s grandmother makes her wear her mother’s old clothes to school. Such scenarios are most common in pornographic films, such as The Fever of Laure (Marc Dorcel 1999), in which a client makes the prostitute Laure dress up as Alice in Wonderland.

[61] Cockrell, “One Good Hard Step Beyond Innocence.”

[62] See for example, Thomas S. Weinberg and Gerhard Falk, “The Social Organization of Sadism and Masochism,” Reprinted from Deviant Behavior: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 1:379-393 in S and M: Studies in Sadomasochism, Thomas S. Weinberg and G. W. Levi Kamel, eds. (Buffalo, NY: Prometheus Books, 1983), pp. 149-161; John Alan Lee, “The Social Organization of Sexual Risk,” revision of an article that first appeared in Alternative Lifestyles, 2 (February 1979): 69-100, in S and M: Studies in Sadomasochism, Thomas S. Weinberg and G. W. Levi Kamel, eds. (Buffalo, NY: Prometheus Books, 1983), pp. 175-203; and Thomas S. Weinberg, “Sadism and Masochism, Sociological Perspectives,” S and M: Studies in Sadomasochism, Thomas Weinberg and G.W. Levi Kamel, eds. (Buffalo, NY: Prometheus Books, 1983), pp. 99-143.

[63] Williams, p. 212.

[64] Ibid.

[65] Todd McCarthy, “Apt Pupil.” Daily Variety, September 11, 1998, p. 10.

[66] Boyce, Apt Pupil: Screenplay, 61.

[67] For details, see Rebecca Ascher-Walsh, “A Clothes Call: An Indecent Proposal Made on the Apt Pupil Set?” Entertainment Weekly, May 2, 1997, p. 21; “Parents Sue Over Alleged ‘Pupil’ Nudity,” Daily Variety, April 18, 1997, p. 50; “Second Suit Filed Over ‘Pupil’ Lensing,” Daily Variety, April 22, 1997, p. 22; “Third Suit Against ‘Pupil’ Principals,” Daily Variety, May 16, 1997, p. 52.

[68] Eric J. Olson, “Org Renews Protest Over ‘Pupil,’” Daily Variety, October 23, 1998, p. 54.

[69] Christian Leopold Shea, “Rapt Pupil,” Jaundiced Eye On-Line Review 1998 <http://www.geocities.com/Hollywood/Hills/1670/aptpupil.html>. Jack Cheevers and Mark Ebner, in “Naked Shakedown,” New Times Los Angeles Thursday, July 2, 1998, “Features,” note, “In interviews with journalists, Rub and Gordon like to milk the ‘irony’ of a group of innocents herded into showers and forced to strip during the making of a movie related to Nazi death camps--even if it’s a bit of a stretch to compare Eliot Middle School with Dachau.”

[70] King, Different Seasons, 177.

[71] Boyce, Apt Pupil: Screenplay, 58.

[72] Shea, “Rapt Pupil.”

[73] Mathews remarks: “It’s played as black comedy, as if Dussander were a reformed vampire falling off the wagon. But considering that the cat represents the lives of 6 million slaughtered Jews, it’s comedy of a truly odious sort.” Mathews, “Apt Pupil Looks at Seductive Power of the Face of Evil,” Los Angeles Times, October 23, 1998, p. F8.

[74] Robert Denerstein, “Not Much to Salute in ‘Apt Pupil,’” The Denver Rocky Mountain News, October 23, 1998, Entertainment: Weekend Spotlight; Ed. F; p. 1D.

[75] King, p. 206.

[76] Ibid., 62-63.

[77] Ibid., 56C-57.

[78] In Cockrell,One Good Hard Step Beyond Innocence,” Singer remarks, “I never intended any [erotic tension] between the two characters [i.e., Todd and Dussander], but there is a smattering of that with the guidance counselor and with the homeless guy, which can be kind of interesting.”

[79] Boyce, Apt Pupil: Screenplay, 66.

[80] Scheib, “Apt Pupil.” Note, Scheib has some details of the film action wrong here.

[81] James Verniere, “Master Class: Apt Pupil Studies Lure of Nazism and Other Evils.” Boston Herald, October 23, 1998, SCE, p. S11.

[82] Ibid.

[83] Kaja Silverman, Male Subjectivity at the Margins (New York: Routledge, 1992), pp. 206-209.

[84] Ibid., 208.

[85] Weinberg, “Sadism and Masochism, Sociological Perspectives,” p. 110.

[86] The connection of “barbarism/premodern culture” and Nazism was key to the discourse surrounding Buchenwald, most notably in the shrinking of heads. This is not far off from post-war thought about Nazi Germany as an ostensibly modern culture, but under the veil, “atavistic.” See Lawrence Douglas, “The Shrunken Head of Buchenwald: Icons of Atrocity at Nuremberg,” in Visual Culture and the Holocaust, Barbie Zelizer, ed., (New Brunswick NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2001), pp. 275-299.

[87] Laura Pietropaolo, “Liliana Cavani’s Night Porter,” Donna: Women in Italian Culture (Ottawa, Canada: Dovehouse Editions, 1989), p. 71.

[88] Williams, p. 213.

[89] This discussion was started by Teresa de Lauretis.  See, for example, Teresa de Lauretis, “Cavani’s Night Porter:  A Woman’s Film?”  Film Quarterly 30 (1976-77):  35-38.  See also The Practice of Love: Lesbian Sexuality and Perverse Desire  (Bloomington and Indianapolis:  Indiana University Press, 1994), and Alice Doesn’t:  Feminism, Semiotics, Cinema (Bloomington and Indianapolis:  Indiana University Press, 1984)

[90] See, for example, Marguerite Waller, “Signifying the Holocaust: Liliana Cavani’s Portiere di notte,” in Feminisms in the Cinema (Indiana Univ. Press, 1995), pp. 206-219; Chiara Bassi, “Fathers and Daughters in the Camp: The Night Porter by Liliana Cavani, Gendered Contexts: New Perspectives in Italian Cultural Studies, eds. Laura Benedetti, Julia L. Hairston and Sylvia M. Ross (New York: Peter Lang, 1996), pp. 165-175; Mirto Golo Stone, “The Feminist Critic and Salome: On Cavani’s The Night Porter,” Romance Languages Annual, eds. Ben Lawton and Anthony Julian Tamburri, Volume 1 (Purdue Research Foundation, 1990), pp. 41-44.

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