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A REVIEW OF CONTEMPORARY MEDIA

 

Notes

1. John R. Searle, “Naturidentische Gefuehle,” Die Zeit 37, Sept 6, 2001, p. 43.

2. Kent Jones, “A.I. de Spielberg: du pur Kubrick…sans Kubrick,” Cahiers du cinéma 560, Sept. 2001, p. 52f (my translation).

3. J. Hoberman, “The Dreamlife of Androids,” Sight and Sound, Sept. 2001, p. 17.

4. cf. Thomas Elsaesser, “Subject Positions, Speaking Positions: From Holocaust, Our Hitler and Heimat to Shoah and Schindler’s List,” in Vivian Sobchack (ed.), The Persistence of History: Cinema, Television, and the Modern Event (New York, London: Routledge, 1996), pp. 149f, 172.

5. cf. Vivian Sobchack, The Address of the Eye: A Phenomenology of Film Experience (Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press, 1992), esp. chapter 1.

6. Merten Worthmann, “Verfuehrungsmodul A.I.: Wie uns Spielberg mit nichtmenschlichen Helden ruehrt,” Die Zeit 37, Sept. 6, 2001, p. 44.

7. Siegfried Kracauer, Theory of Film. The Redemption of Physical Reality (Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press, 1960, 1997), esp. chapter 16.

8. Siegfried Kracauer, History: The Last Things Before the Last (New York: Oxford University Press), 1969.

9. Kracauer quoted in Miriam Hansen,”'With Skin and Hair': Kracauer’s Theory of Film, Marseille 1940,” Critical Inquiry 19, Spring 1993, pp. 458f. On Hollywood slapstick and action genres cf. Kracauer, Theory of Film, pp. 57f, 280f, 305f.

10. I develop this point in “Koerper-Erfahrung und Film-Phaenomenologie,” in Juergen Felix (ed.), Moderne Film Theorie (Mainz: Bender Verlag, 2002).

11. cf. Peter V. Brinkemper, “Die Suche nach der Blauen Fee: A.I. oder der Pinocchio der Zukunft,” Telepolis, Sept. 20th, 2001. <http://www.heise.de/tp>.

12. Spielberg quoted in: Hoberman, “Dreamlife of Androids,” p. 18.

13. Worthmann, “Verfuehrungsmodul A.I.,” p. 44.

14. ibid.

15. Roger Ebert, review of A.I., Chicago Sun Times, June 29, 2001.

16. ibid.

17. Sobchack, Screening Space: The American Science Fiction Film (New York: Ungar, 1987), pp. 293f.

18. Worthmann, “Verfuehrungsmodul A.I.,” p. 44.

19. Robert Trappl interviewed by Klaus Taschwer, “'Die simulierten Menschen werden kommen,’” VISA Magazin 4, 2000, p. 32 (my translation).

20. Theodor W. Adorno, “The Curious Realist: On Siegfried Kracauer” (1965), New German Critique 54, 1991, pp. 159-179.

21. cf. Kracauer, “The Mass Ornament” (1927) in The Mass Ornament: Weimar Essays. translated, edited, and with an introduction by Thomas Y. Levin (Cambridge, London: Harvard University Press 1995).

22. Kracauer, Theory of Film, pp. 97, 45.

23. On Kracauer’s concept of “life as such,” cf. Theory of Film, pp. 167-71.

24. Gertrud Koch, “'Not yet accepted anywhere': Exile, Memory, and Image in Kracauer’s Conception of History,” New German Critique 54, 1991, p. 97.

25. Donna Haraway, “A Cyborg Manifesto: Science, Technology, and Socialist Feminism in the Late Twentieth Century” in Simians, Cyborgs and Women: The Reinvention of Nature (New York: Routledge, 1991), pp. 149, 157, 180.

26. For a convincing critique of the nationalization of memory in Spielberg’s recent films, see Catherine Gunther Kodat, “Saving Private Property: Steven Spielberg’s American DreamWorks,” Representations 71, 2000.

27. Heide Schluepmann, “The Subject of Survival: On Kracauer’s Theory of Film,” New German Critique 54, 1991, p. 123.

28. Band of Brothers is the title of a big-budget TV-mini-series spun off from Saving Private Ryan by executive producers Spielberg and Tom Hanks in 2001. I offer an interpretation of Band of Brothers in the context of cinematic memory in my forthcoming article “Affekt-Gedächtnis und nachträgliche Wunder. Der Zweite Weltkrieg im ‘traumakulturellen Kino',” Zeitgeschichte 5, 2002.

29. Hoberman, “Dreamlife of Androids,” p. 18.

30. ibid.

31. Spielberg interviewed by Steve O’Brien, “Spielberg’s Write Stuff,” SFX Magazine 82, September 2001, p. 42; interviewed by Jenny Cooney Carillo, “Resurrection Man,” Total Film 57, October 2001, p. 75.

32. Steve O’Brien, “Kid A.I.,” SFX Magazine 82, September 2001, p. 50.

33. Spielberg in “Resurrection Man,” pp. 74f.

34. Elsaesser, “Specularity and Engulfment. Francis Ford Coppola and Bram Stoker’s Dracula” in Steve Neale, Murray Smith, eds., Contemporary Hollywood Cinema (London, New York: Routledge, 1998), pp. 198, 197, 206.

35. Elsaesser, “Subject Positions, Speaking Positions,” p. 166.

36. Miriam Bratu Hansen,” Schindler’s List Is Not Shoah: The Second Commandment, Popular Modernism, and Public Memory” (1996) in Yosefa Loshitzky, ed., Spielberg’s Holocaust. Critical Perspectives on “Schindler’s List” (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1997), p. 97.

37. Spielberg in “Resurrection Man,” p. 76.

38. Wyatt, High Concept: Movies and Marketing in Hollywood (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1994), p. 13. In an earlier analysis, written together with R.L. Rutsky, Wyatt subjected high concept´s “rationalization of signs” to a neo-Marxist critique of commodity-fetishism; see Wyatt, Rutsky, “High Concept: Abstracting the Postmodern,” Wide Angle 10, 4, 1988.

39. cf. Elsaesser, “The Blockbuster: ‘Everything Connects, but Not Everything Goes’” in Jon Lewis. ed., The End of Cinema As We Know It: American Film in the Nineties (New York, London: New York University, 2001), p 21f.

40. ibid.

41. Alison Landsberg, “Prosthetic Memory: Total Recall and Blade Runner” in: Mike Featherstone, Roger Burrows, eds., Cyberspace/Cyberbodies/Cyberpunk: Cultures of Technological Embodiment (London, Thousand Oaks, New Delhi: Sage, 1995).

42. Paul Arthur, “Primal Screen,” Film Comment 37, 4, July/August 2001, p. 25.

43. Miriam Hansen, “Benjamin, Cinema and Experience: ‘The Blue Flower in the Land of Technology,’” New German Critique 40, 1987, p. 202, 205.

44. Elsaesser, “Cultural Studies and the ‘Crisis’ of Cinema” in Thomas Elsaesser, Eloe Kingma, Frans Willem Korsten, eds., ASCA Brief 1 (Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 1994), p. 33.

45. On control societies see Gilles Deleuze, “Postscript on Control Societies” (1990), in Negotiations 1972-1990 (New York, Chichester, West Sussex: Columbia University Press, 1995).

46. Hoberman, “Dreamlife of Androids,” p. 18; Harlan quoted in O’Brien, “Kid A.I.,” p. 50.


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