1. Cecilia Von Feilitzen, “Media Violence: Four Research Perspectives” in Approaches to Audiences: A Reader, ed. Roger Dickinson, Ramaswami Harindranath, and Olga Linné (London: Arnold, 1998), pp. 88-103. I expand on this in Media Reception Studies (New York: New York University Press 2005, pp. 18-19.

2. Staiger, Media Reception Studies, pp. 18-19.

3. Accessed 31 July 2005.

4. Accessed 31 July 2005.

5. David Paletz, Judith Koon, Elizabeth Whitehead, and Richard B. Hagens, “Selective Exposure: The Potential Boomerang Effect,” Journal of Communication 22, no. 1 (March 1972), 49. The film was Tell Me Lies (Peter Brooks, 1968). The selective exposure thesis comes from research by Joseph T. Klapper, The Effects of Mass Communication (Glencoe, Illinois: Free Press, 1960).

6. Gunter, “Responding to News,” p. 231. The research indicates that educational attainment is not a cause.

7. Also see Staiger, Media Reception Studies, pp. 186-96.

8. Stuart Hall, “Encoding/Decoding” in Culture Media, Language, ed. Stuart Hall, Dorothy Hobsen, Andrew Lowe, and Paul Willis (London: Hutchinson, 1980), p. 135.

9. Accessed 31 July 2005.

10. Alison M. Jaggar, “Love and Knowledge: Emotion in Feminist Epistemology,” in Gender/Body/Knowledge: Feminist Representations of Being and Knowing, ed. Alison M. Jagger and Susan R. Bordo (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1989), p. 145. Also see Catherine Lutz regarding our discourses of trying to control emotions: “Engendered Emotion: Gender, Power, and the Rhetoric of Emotional Control in American Discourse,” in Language and the Politics of Emotion, ed. Catherine A. Lutz and Lila Abu-Lughod (Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press, 1990), pp. 69-70.

11. Jérôme Bourdon, “Television and Political Memory,” Media, Culture and Society 14, no. 4 (October 1992), 542. The Democrats may be learning this: see Matt Bai, “The Framing Wars, New York Times Magazine, 17 July 2005.

12. Elihu Katz and Paul F. Lazarsfeld, Personal Influence: The Part Played by People in the Flow of Mass Communication (Glencoe, IL: Free Press, 1955).

13. Jeffrey C. Alexander and Ronald N. Jacobs, “Mass Communication, Ritual and Civil Society” in Media, Ritual, Identity, ed. Tamar Liebes and James Curran (NY: Routledge, 1998), p. 29. An additional essay just published that is particularly exciting in its theoretical and practical implications is Mike Kesby, “Retheorizing Empowerment-through-Participation as a Performance in Space: Beyond Tyranny to Transformation,” Signs 30, no. 4 (Summer, 2005): 2037-2065.

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