1. Karen Walton, Ginger Snaps, DVD Commentary. [open page 1 in new window]

2. Charlotte F. Otten, "Introduction," in Otten (ed.), A Lycanthropy Reader: Werewolves in Western Culture (Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 1986), p. 8.

3. Ibid., pp. 5-6.

4. Ibid., p. 8.

5. Ibid., p. 3.

6. The fate of (too) many Canadian films, the 2004 sequel, Ginger Snaps Unleashed, went virtually unnoticed and disappeared after only two weeks in (limited) commercial theatres. The third in the trilogy went directly to DVD.

7. See Linda Badley, Film, Horror, and the Body Fantastic (Greenwood Press, 1995), pp. 9-11.

8. John Harkness, "Witty Werewolves," NOW Magazine, 20(36), 2001, p. 99.

9. See in particular Michael Ryan and Douglas Kellner, Camera Politica: The Politics and Ideology of Contemporary Hollywood (Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 1998).

10. To see how this is played out in the realm of warfare, see Veronique Pin-Fat and Maria Stern, "The Scripting of Private Jessica Lynch: Biopolitics, Gender, and the 'Feminization' of the U.S. Military," Alternatives 30 (2005), pp. 25-30.

11. See Giorgio Agamben, Homo Sacer: Sovereign Power and Bare Life (Stanford CA: Stanford University Press, 1998).

12. Ibid., p. 139.

13. Ibid., pp. 139-140.

14. Whilst Foucault did well to examine the prison, military barracks and the clinic as spaces in which living bodies are arranged, modified and governed, he stopped short of recognizing the Nazi concentration camp as the most fully realized biopolitical space of our time, which, for Agamben, is the most decisive event and very paradigm of modernity.

15. See Agamben, p. 183.

16. The film's subtitle, "The Beginning," suggests not just the beginning of the sisters' tale but the origins of the Canadian nation itself.

17. This accompanies a television commercial playing in the background early in the film.

18. Badley, p. 10.

19. Ibid., p. 12.

20. Ibid., p. 13.

21. Ibid., p. 17.

22. Karen Walton, Ginger Snaps, DVD.

23. See Barbara Creed, The Monstrous Feminine: Film, Feminism, and Psychoanalysis (London and New York: Routledge, 1993).

24. Badley, p. 21.

25. Ibid., p. 22.

26. In the DVD commentary, Walton explains that she originally wanted to make consumerism a more explicit theme in the film but feared that adding another layer would make the narrative too unwieldy.

27. Badley, p. 22.

28. Ibid., p. 34.

29. Ibid., p. 10.

30. Ginger's violence is not exclusively sexual, however. "I get this ache," she tells Brigitte, "and I thought it was for sex, but it's to tear everything into fucking pieces." Ginger's killing spree begins indiscriminately with a dog, but for the most part is directed at those who threaten, or appear to threaten, her sister. That those figures occupy the high school is not insignificant.

3 . Linda Ruth Williams, " Ginger Snaps, review in Sight and Sound, June 2001.

32. Ibid.

33. Karen Walton, Ginger Snaps, DVD Commentary. [open page 2 in new window]

34. Brett Sullivan, Ginger Snaps II: Unleashed, DVD commentary.

35. Brigitte had collapsed in a snow bank following a tussle with the werewolf in which library employee was killed.

36. Agamben, p. 32.

37. Agamben, p. 105.

38. See Patricia Molloy, "Demon Diasporas: Confronting the Other and the Otherworldly in Buffy the Vampire Slayer and Angel," in Jutta Weldes, ed., To Seek Out New Worlds: Science Fiction and World Politics (New York: Palgrave, 2003).
[open page 3 in new window]

39. Agamben, p. 105.

40. In Agamben, p. 108.

41. Ibid., p. 109.

42. Ibid., p. 109.

43. See R. John Williams, "Theory and the Democracy to Come: Review of Derrida, Rogues: Two Essays on Reason," in Postmodern Culture, 2005.

44. Jacques Derrida, Rogues, p. 69, quoted in ibid.

45. Ibid., p. 96.

46. Derrida, in Rogues p.102, 103. Cited in ibid.

47. The word "windigo" is derived from the Algonquin witiku which signifies both "evil spirit" and "cannibal" and within Native lore often refers to a combination of both. Although it assumes a recognizably human shape, the Windigo is non-gendered. See John Robert Colombo (ed.), Windigo: An Anthology of Fact and Fantastic Fiction (Saskatoon: Western Producer Prairie Books, 1982).

48. Ginger Snaps Back DVD commentary.

49. In addition to the Windigo within Native lore, the Frenchman Claude tells the sisters that when he and his brother (who disappeared on the trading expedition) were boys in France, their grandfather had told them of mysterious happenings when the moon was full. "Man transformed into wolf. On the full moon it preyed on the shepherds and travellers near his village. The old man warned us, beware its bite or we might become slaves of the full moon too."

50. The film’s writers and producers made a deliberate choice not to have a back story to the girls' past, but to provide only enough detail to suggest that "they'd been up to something." The ease with which Ginger swings her sword could indicate that she'd used one before. See DVD Commentary.

51. The seer explains that Ginger was to kill the boy before he had a chance to bite her.

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