1. All quotations are from the published version of Kleinhans’s 2005 Montreal address. See Chuck Kleinhans, “Audio Documentary” A Polemical Introduction for the Visual Studies Crowd.” www.ejumpcut.org

2. ibid.

3. See Don Ihde, Listening and Voice: A Phenomenology of Sound (Athens: Ohio University Press, 1976).

4. Edward S. Casey, “How to Get from Space to Place in a Fairly Short Stretch of Time: Phenomenological Prolegomenia,” in Steven Feld and Keith H. Basso, eds., Senses of Place (Santa Fe: School of American Research, 1996) 24. Casey is quoted in Patricia Price, Dry Places: Landscapes of Belonging and Exclusion (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2004) 12.

5. There is an enormous amount of literature in the last ten years on the concept of landscape. To simplify the discussion I am in this instance resorting to Price for her distilled notion of landscape as both physical terrain and framework for constructing identity. See Dry Places, 13.

6. Brandon LaBelle, Background Noise: Perspectives on Sound Art (London: The Continuum International Publishing Group Inc, 2006) vii. Brandon LaBelle studied under Steven Connor and Allen S. Weiss at the London Consortium. See Steven Connor, “Edison’s Teeth: Touching Hearing,” Hearing Cultures, ed. Veit Erlmann (Oxford: Berg, 2004), 157.

7. “Edison’s Teeth,” 168. For an exploration of the contest between hearing and seeing, see Steven Connor, “Sound and the Self,” Hearing History: A Reader, ed. Mark Smith (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2004) 61.

8. “Sound and Self,” passim.

9. “Edison’s Teeth,” 153.

10. “Edison’s Teeth,” 154.

11. “Sound and Self,” 61.

12. “Edison’s Teeth,” 154.

13. “Something that sets matter in motion” comes from Rick Altman, “Material Heterogeneity of Recorded Sound,” Sound Theory, Sound Practice, ed. Rick Altman (New York: Routledge, 1992) 17.

14. “Edison’s Teeth,” 157.

15. “Edison’s Teeth.”

16. Lerman’s comments on his work may be found at his website: http://www.west.asu.edu/rlerman/. Discussion of the Fence-Border pieces (“For me, these fences witnessed events….”) occurs in an interview with Lerman: http://www/seattleweekly.com/arts/0613/lermanqa.php. Sound clip comes from Richard Lerman, Within Earreach: Sonic Journeys (Artifact Recordings, 1994).

17. “Edison’s Teeth,” 157.

18. “Sound and Self,” 56.

20. “Sound and Self,” 58.

21. “Sound and Self,” 65.

22. “Sound and Self,” 64.

23. For more about the World Soundscape Project, go to www.sfu.ca/~truax/wsp. For more about the World Forum for Acoustic Ecology, see http://interact.uoregon.edu/medialit/wfae/home/index.html.
R. Murray Schaefer is generally credited with coining the term soundscape, which he has defined many times over the years. See his landmark volume, the Soundscape: Our Sonic Environment and the Tuning of the World (Destiny Books, 1977), originally published as The Tuning of the World (Knopf, 1977). Brandon LaBelle’s definition may be found in Background Noise, 202.

24 LaBelle offers a particularly sensitive critique of the acoustic ecology project in Background Noise, 195-218.

25. All quotations and descriptions come from Steve Peters, Here-ings: A Sonic Geohistory (La Alameda Press, 2002). For more about Peters, see:

26. “Here-ings.”

27. For this section on vocabulary, I have ruthlessly raided Barry Traux’s excellent chapter, “The Acoustic Community” in his seminal work, Acoustic Communication (Ablex Publishing, 2003).

28. Acknowledging the enormous (and enormously unwieldy) body of work on place and place studies, Price nevertheless does a fine job of compressing some of the most recently influential literature on the subject into a short but highly useful chapter, “Place Visions,” in Dry Place cited earlier. All quotations come from this chapter.

29. All quotations fro Kathleen Stewart, A Space on the Side of the Road: Cultural Poetics in an ‘Other’ America (New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1996).

30. A Space on the Side of the Road, 38.

31. For an insightful elaboration of this idea, see Matthew Potteiger and Jamie Purinton, Landscape Narratives: Design Practices for Telling Stories (John Wiley & Sons, 1998).

32. Janet Cardiff and George Bures Miller, Her Long Black Hair, audio walk with photographs, 46 minutes. Curated by Tom Eccles for the Public Art Fund, Central Park, New York, USA. (2004).

33. All quotations from David Scobey, Empire City: The Making and Meaning of the New York City Landscape (Temple University, 2006).

34. Portions of the script may be found in Mirjam Schaub, Janet Cardiff: The Walk Book (Verlag Der Buchhandlung Walther Konig, Book and CD version, 2006). See p. 52.

35. Janet Cardiff, 58.


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