1. As Christopher Sharrett points out, “While Bush [Senior] pummelled Iraq with a devastating air Armada, the talk shows were filled with hand-wringing about the popularity of serial killer movies” (13).

2. By “normative” I do not mean “normal,” a term which is often used to oppress those people who do not conform to social norms, but rather what dominant ideology constructs as “normal,” often to the detriment of many minoritized subjects.

3. Jean Baudrillard, theorist of the hyperreal, has argued that the order of the hyperreal substitutes the signs of the real (i.e. representations and simulations of reality) for the real itself (2). In our media-saturated, image-dominated, cyber-immersed culture, Baudrillard pessimistically declares the impossibility of recovering the real, a vacuum that is being filled by simulacra (copies without originals) (19).

4. For a summary of reviewers’ discussions of the oppositions installed between Lecter and Buffalo Bill, see Staiger (145).

5. Lesbian and gay activists also picketed cinemas showing Basic Instinct for its association of transgressive sexuality with serial killing.

6. For a reading of the monster in horror films as a projection of repressed fears and desires, see Wood, ch. 5.

7. Richard Dyer has made a similar point about whiteness generally, arguing that its very ordinariness means that it cannot escape implications of non-existence, meaninglessness and sterility (White 212).

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DiPiero, Thomas. “White Men Aren’t.” Camera Obscura: A Journal of Feminism and Film Theory 30 (1992): 112-37.

Dollimore, Jonathan. Sexual Dissidence: Augustine to Wilde, Freud to Foucault. Oxford: Clarendon, 1991.

Dyer, Richard. “Kill and Kill Again.” Action/Spectacle Cinema: A Sight and Sound Reader. Ed. José Arroyo. London: BFI, 2000. 145-50.

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Ellis, Bret Easton. American Psycho. Basingstoke: Picador, 1991.

Grant, Barry Keith. “American Psycho/sis: The Pure Products of America Go Crazy.” Mythologies of Postmodern Violence in Postmodern Media. Ed. Christopher Sharrett. Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1999.23-40.

Halberstam, Judith. Skin Shows: Gothic Horror and the Technology of Monsters. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1995.

Hall, Stuart. “Introduction: Who Needs Identity?” Questions of Cultural Identity. Ed. Stuart Hall and Paul du Gay. London: Sage, 1996. 1-17.

Harris, Thomas. Red Dragon. New York: Putman, 1981.

Hutcheon, Linda. The Politics of Postmodernism. London: Routledge, 1990.

Jameson, Fredric. Postmodernism, or, The Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism. London: Verso, 1991.

Modleski, Tania. Feminism Without Women: Culture and Criticism in a “Postfeminist” Age. New York: Routledge, 1991.

Mulvey, Laura. “Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema.” Screen  16.3 (1975): 6-18.

Newitz, Annalee. “Serial Killers, True Crime, and Economic Performance Anxiety.” Mythologies of Postmodern Violence in Postmodern Media. Ed. Christopher Sharrett. Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1999. 65-83.

—. “White Savagery and Humiliation, or a New Racial Consciousness in the Media.” White Trash: Race and Class in America. Ed. Matthew Wray and Annalee Newitz. London: Routledge, 1997. 131-54.

Newitz, Annalee and Matthew Wray. “What Is ‘White Trash’? Stereotypes and Economic Conditions of Poor Whites in the United States.” Whiteness: A Critical Reader. Ed. Mike Hill. London: New York University Press, 1997. 168-184.

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