1. The author wishes to thank Stephen Chow for his time and providing information.

2. Lin Nien-Tung notes the characteristics of the martial arts hero in cinema:

"The martial hero in the cinema is a commoner who “keeps his promise, advocates integrity far and wide, and sacrifices his life despite the world.” … He [the martial hero] may be the protagonist in Zhang Che’s films, who annihilates a single opponent, a household, a village, or a county for the sake of settling private hostilities. Or he may be the patriot in King Hu’s films, a Mohist disciple who uses force with a broader vision for humanity. The heroes in films uniformly live up to Sima Qian’s definition of the xia, while heroes with pluralistic natures, as found in huaben literature, have yet to be created." (16)

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