1. Herbert Marcuse, The Aesthetic Dimension: Toward a Critique of Marxist Aesthetics, trans. by the author and Erica Sherover (Boston: Beacon Press, 1978). [return to page one]
2. Georgi Plekhanov, qtd. in Henri Arvon, Marxist Aesthetics, trans. Helen Lane (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1973), ix-x.
3. Maxim Gorki, qtd. in Arvon, Marxist Aesthetics, 2.
4. Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, The Communist Manifesto, in Arthur P. Mendel, ed., Essential Works of Marxism (New York: Bantam, 1965), 15.
5. Frank P. Tomasulo, "'Life Is Inconclusive': A Conversation with Michelangelo Antonioni," On Film 13 (Fall 1984): 62.
6. Herbert Marcuse, One-Dimensional Man: Studies in the Ideology of Advanced Industrial Society (Boston: Beacon Press, 1964).
7. For more on the Southern Question, see Antonio Gramsci, The Southern Question, trans. Pasquale Verdicchio (West Lafayette, Ind.: Bordighera, 1995). [return to page two]
8. Pierre Leprohon, Michelangelo Antonioni, trans. Scott Sullivan (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1963), 60-61.
9. Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, The German Ideology (New York: International Publishers, 1947), 89.
10. Karl Marx, "Preface to A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy," in On Historical Materialism (New York: International Publishers, 1974), 137.
11. Michelangelo Antonioni, "A Talk with Michelangelo Antonioni on His Work," in L'Avventura: A Film by Michelangelo Antonioni (New York: Grove Press, 1969), 215.
12. Alberto Moravia, qtd. in Leprohon, Michelangelo Antonioni, 164.
13. In Civilization and Its Discontents (1930), Sigmund Freud wrote: "The communal life of human beings had, therefore, a two-fold foundation: the compulsion to work, which was created by external necessity, and the power of love." Freud, Civilization and Its Discontents, trans. James Strachey (New York: Norton, 1961), 48. Erik H. Erikson apparently shortened this formulation into "Love and work are the cornerstones of our humanness." Erikson, Childhood and Society (W. W. Norton, 1986), chap. 7.
14. William H. Whyte, The Organization Man (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1956).
15. Armando Borrelli, Neorealismo e Marxismo (Avellino: Edizioni di Cinemasud, 1966), 148. My translation.
16. In a UCLA seminar on Film and Social Reality (1978), Michael Renov referred to this scene as "locomotis interruptus." It is an especially apt phrase, when one considers that the train's prominent chugging sounds overlap the heartbeats of the sexually aroused couple, Sandro and Claudia.
17. Freud's concept of Wiederholungzwang (repetition compulsion) is at the center of his Beyond the Pleasure Principle (1920). Freud, Beyond the Pleasure Principle, trans. James Strachey (New York: Norton, 1961), 29-30.
18. Peter Brunette, The Films of Michelangelo Antonioni (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1998), 49.
19. Giorgio Tinazzi, Michelangelo Antonioni (Florence: La Nuova Italia, 1974), 83.
20. Antonioni, "A Talk with Michelangelo Antonioni on His Work," in L'Avventura, 223; and Antonioni, "The Cannes Statement," in Seymour Chatman and Guido Fink, eds., L'Avventura (New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1989), 178. My translation.
21. Fredric Jameson, The Political Unconscious: Narrative as a Socially Symbolic Act (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1981), 76. [return to page 3]
22. Friedrich Engels, Letter to Margaret Harkness, April 1888, in Lee Baxandall and Stefan Morawski, eds., Marx and Engels on Literature and Art (St. Louis: Telos Press, 1973), 115.
23. Robert Philip Kolker, The Altering Eye: Contemporary International Cinema (New York: Oxford University Press, 1983), 343.
24. Ian Cameron and Robin Wood, Antonioni (New York: Praeger, 1971), 102.
25. Michelangelo Antonioni, qtd. in Frank P. Tomasulo, The Rhetoric of Ambiguity: Michelangelo Antonioni and the Modernist Discourse, Ph.D. dissertation, UCLA, 1986, 547.
26. My pun — "prison-house of langue" — uses both Fredric Jameson's book title, The Prison-House of Language: A Critical Account of Structuralism and Russian Formalism (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1972), and Ferdinand de Saussure's distinction between langue (language system) and parole (speech). Cf. Ferdinand de Saussure, Course in General Linguistics, trans. Wade Baskins (New York: Philosophical Library, 1959).
27. Karl Marx, cited in Herbert Marcuse, "Art as Form of Reality," New Left Review 1.74 (July-August 1972): 53.
28. Mario Vargas Llosa, qtd. in Samuel G. Freedman, "Can Tranquil Times Yield Great Works?" New York Times, August 25, 1985, AL1.
29. Andrew Sarris, The American Cinema: Directors and Directions, 1929-1968 (New York: E. P. Dutton, 1968), 146.
30. Bertolt Brecht, "Against Georg Lukács," New Left Review 1.84 (March-April 1974): 6.