1. Though the application of sound to Peirce’s signs is my own, the discussion of Peirce and semiotics agrees with parsing of Peirce in Stam, Burgoyne and Flitterman-Lewis.
2. Though iMovie displays only two tracks for audio, audio clips may be laid over other audio clips. Because this makes for a confusing edit, beginners only utilize two or three pieces of audio at a time. To work with audio in iMovie: digitize recordings from the camera. These clips come in with image and sound. Cut and paste clips from the Bin into the tracks below. Extract audio and unlock audio and picture. Finally, delete picture. Now audio exists in iMovie as a clip in and of itself which can be moved around the track (but not stored in a bin as audio only, unfortunately.) Under preferences, one may select to see clips as "audio waveforms.’
3. Test’s piece is also noteworthy because of his application of pitch shifting. During the course of the interview, the documentarian’s voice shifts in pitch to "become" the voice of the participant. Test used this method to reveal how audiences unquestionably trust the facts presented by documentarians. Test continued the ideas put forth in this project in a sound project produced as an honor’s thesis in 2004.
Al-Fityani, Kinda. Melissa and Kinda, audio, 4:18 min, 2004.
Alten, Stanley R. Audio in Media, Thomson Wadsworth, Belmont, CA, 2005.
Altman, Rick. “The Material Heterogeneity of Recorded Sound,” in Sound Theory, Sound Practice, Routledge, Indiana, 1988.
Benin, David. Ramona Quimby’s Partial Birth Abortion, Age 14, audio, 1:13 min, 2004.
Chesler, Giovanna. Divas Direct: Film Workshops for Girls, San Diego Women Film Foundation, San Diego, 2005.
Chion, Michel. Audio Vision: Sound on Screen, ed. Claudia Gorbman, Columbia University Press, New York, 1994.
Corbett, John and Terri Kapsalis. “Aural Sex: The Female Orgasm in Popular Sound”, in Experimental Sound and Radio, MIT Press, pp. 97-106, 2000.
Der Stephanians, Leo and Matt Test and Mark Zabala, Alien Visit, audio, 3:03 min, 2002.
Doane, Mary Anne. “The Voice in the Cinema: The Articulation of Body and Space”, in Yale French Studies, No. 60 Cinema/Sound, pp.33-50, 1980.
Ellis, Ryan. Optic Nerve Radio Hour, audio, 5:23 min, 2004.
Gardner, Justin. Foley Tour, audio, 4:51, 2002.
Inugai, Toshiro. Cell Phone, audio, 2:07 min., 2003.
Kahn, Douglas. Noise, Water, Meat: A History of Sound in the Arts, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1999.
Lawrence, Amy. Echo and Narcissus: Women’s Voices in Classical Hollywood Cinema, UC Press, Berkeley, 2001.
Metz, Christian. “Aural Objects”, excerpted in Sound: Theory and Practice, ed. Elisabeth Weis and John Belton, Columbia University Press, New York, pp. 154-161, 1985.
Murch, Walter. “Womb Tone”, audio, 2005.
Murch, Walter “Foreword” in Audio Vision: Sound on Screen, by Michel Chion, ed. Claudia Gorbman, Columbia University Press, New York, pp. i-xxiv, 1994.
Nichols, Bill. Introduction to Documentary, Indiana University Press, Bloomington, 2001.
Peirce, Charles Sanders. Collected Papers, vols I-VIII, ed. Charles Hartshorne and Paul Weiss, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, 1931.
Silverman, Kaja. The Acoustic Mirror: The Female Voice in Psychoanalysis and Cinema, Indiana University Press, Bloomington, 1988
Sjogren, Britta. Into the Vortex: Female Voice and Paradox in Film, University of Illinois Press,
Stam, Robert, Robert Burgoyne and Sandy Flitterman-Lewis. New Vocabularies in Film Semiotics: Structuralism, post-structuralism and beyond, Routledge, New York, 1992.
Test, Matt. Room Tone, audio, 12:59, 2002.
Weiss, Allen (ed). Experimental Sound and Radio, MIT Press, 2000.
Weiss, Allen. Phantasmic Radio, Duke University Press, 1995.
Wydra, Nicole. Dentist’s Office, audio, 5:10 min, 2003.
Yewdell, David Lewis. Practical Art of Motion Picture Sound, Focal Press, Boston, MA, 2003.