1. Rush Hour, the first film, shares this logic too. The film begins with Jackie Chan’s character, Lee, foiling the smuggling out of Hong Kong priceless Chinese antiques belonging to the villain Jun Tao. Needless to say, the villain is eventually apprehended in the States. There is a further irony in that the rescued antiques seen as the salvaging of China’s heritage from criminal plunderers ends up in America too. Like a magnet, the United States draws everything to itself. [return to page 1]
2. This strategy echoes with a process that Arif Dirlik has articulated where the "features of the local" are recognized only to "incorporate localities into the imperatives of the global." ("Global in the Local," 34).
3. See Kwai-Cheung Lo’s "Double Negations: Hong Kong Cultural Identity in Hollywood’s Transnational Repesentations" for a detailed analysis of the politics of Jackie Chan’s representation in the first Rush Hour.
4. Hong Kong’s status as a national cinema is problematic as Hong Kong technically is not a nation. Yet its highly visible and dominant film industry has in the past addressed a Chinese community (diasporic or otherwise) and with the advent of 1997, Hong Kong cinema entered a phase of reflection on the possibilities of a Hong Kong identity.
6. Rain can sometimes work to heighten romance with lovers huddling under umbrellas and the awareness of gendered bodies through soaked clothes. In Comarades, however, the cold rain works to dampen the atmosphere instead. [return to page 2]
8. The English names of characters in One Nite that I use here are names given in the English subtitles. Presumably they were chosen because they were the closest English-sounding approximation to their Chinese names used in the dialogue of the film. [return to page 3]
9. Hands are a motif in the film, signifying solidarity. When Ben and Milo share a moment after Ben’s shooting of the drug dealer, Milo holds out his hand before a van tail lamp to indicate their common bond. In a counterpoint to Laifu and Milo’s lack of connection, Brandon holds Ben’s hand as the latter lies dying.
Abbas, Ackbar, Hong Kong: Culture and Politics of Disappearance (Hong Kong: HKU Press, 1997).
Dirlik, Arif. "The Global in the Local." Global/Local: Cultural Production and the Transnational Imaginary, edited by Rob Wilson and Wimal Dissanayake (London and Durham: Duke University Press, 1996), 21-45.
Hall, Stuart, "Old and New Identities, Old and New Ethnicities." Culture, Globalization and the World-System: Contemporary Conditions for the Representations of Identity, edited by Anthony D. King (London: Macmillan, 1991), 41-68.
_________. "Culture, Community, Nation." Cultural Studies, vol. 7, 1993, 349-63.
King, Anthony D., ed., Culture, Globalization and the World-System: Contemporary Conditions for the Representations of Identity (London: Macmillan, 1991).
Lai, Linda, "Film and Enigmatization: Nostalgia, Nonsensem and Remembering." At Full Speed: Hong Kong Cinema in a Borderless World, edited by Esther C. M. Yau (Minneapolis and London, University of Minnesota Press : 2001), 231-50.
Lo, Kwai-Cheung, "Transnationalization of the Local in Hong Kong Cinema of the 1990s." At Full Speed: Hong Kong Cinema in a Borderless World, edited by Esther C. M. Yau (Minneapolis and London, University of Minnesota Press: 2001), 261-76.
______________. "Double Negotiations: Hong Kong Cultural Identity in Hollywood’s Transnational Representations." Cultural Studies, vol. 15, no. 3/4, 2001, 464-85.
Lu, Sheldon, "Filming Diaspora and Identity: Hong Kong and 1997." The Cinema of Hong Kong: History, Arts, Identity. Edited by Poshek Fu and David Desser (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000?), 273-88.
Morris, Meaghan, "Transnational Imagination in Action Cinema: Hong Kong and the Making of a Global Popular Culture." Inter-Asia Cultural Studies, vol. 5, no. 2, 2004, 181-99.
Wilson, Rob and Wimal Dissanayake, eds, Global/Local: Cultural Production and the Transnational Imaginary. (London and Durham: Duke University Press, 1996).
Yau, Esther C. M., ed., At Full Speed: Hong Kong Cinema in a Borderless World (Minneapolis and London, University of Minnesota Press: 2001).