I am grateful to the editors of Jump Cut for their constructive comments on several drafts of this essay, and to the University Research Council at the University of Hawai'i at Manoa, for a generous grant to travel to Spain to research the representation of migrants in film.

1. Some of these films that have garnered international acclaim include

  • La Haine (Hate, dir. Mathieu Kassovitz, France, 1996),
  • La promesse (The Promise, dir. Jean-Pierre and Luc Dardenne, Belgium-France-Luxembourg, 1996),
  • Reise der Hoffnung (Journey of Hope, dir. Xavier Koller, Switzerland-Turkey, 1990) and
  • Bolivia (dir. Adrián Caetano, Argentina, 2001).
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2. The figure of 30 million is taken from Purcell, J.N. (1991); the figure of 75 million in 1997 comes from Stalker, P. (2001); and the figure of 115 million comes from a 2005 Report by the Global Commission on International Migration (GCIM), titled Migration in an interconnected world: New directions for action, http://www.gcim.org/en/finalreport.html (Accessed August 24, 2007).

3. The investment figures come from the 1999 International Direct Investment Statistics Yearbook, published by the OECD. The migrant figures come from Spain's Instituto Nacional de Estadística, at www.ine.es/daco/daco42/migracion/exrexpn.htm (12 February 2001) and http://www.ine.es/daco/daco42/migracion/evr2006.pdf (4 September 2007).

4. Historically, Spain has been an exporter of cheap labor power, most recently to northern Europe. However, after the end of the Franco era that began to change rapidly, and today Spain is a net importer of cheap human labor power.

5. Bill Myers (2000) described the incident as follows:

"The four-day rampage, in which rioters attacked North African immigrants with baseball bats and steel bars and staged pitched battles with the police, caused injuries to at least 52 people and led to 23 arrests. It also left Moroccan shops and bars vandalized and homes and cars burned in an area where immigrants provide much of the labor for the region's fruit and vegetable production."

Works cited

Bollaín, Icíar. Perf. El sur. Dir. Víctor Erice. Prod. Elías Querejeta. 1983.

–. Dir. Hola, ¿estás sola? Prod. Santiago García de Leániz and Fernando Colombo. 1995.

–. Perf. Land and Freedom. Dir. Ken Loach. Prod. Rebecca O’Brien. 1995.

–. Dir. Flores de otro mundo. Prod. Iguana-Alta. 1999.

–. Dir. Te doy mis ojos. Prod. Iguana-Alta. 2003.

Bordwell, David. Narration in the Fiction Film. Madison: U Wisconsin P, 1985.

Brooks, Peter. The Melodramatic Imagination. 1976. New Haven, Connecticut: Yale UP, 1995.

Castro, Américo. España en su historia: cristianos, moros y judíos. 1948. Crítica: Barcelona, 1983.

Herskovits, Melville J. Acculturation: The Study of Culture Contacts. New York:  J.J. Augustins, 1938.

Kaplan, E. Ann, “E. Ann Kaplan Replies,” Cinema Journal. 25.4 (Summer 1986): 49-53.

Purcell, J.N. "Opening Address by the Director General of the International  Organization for Migration." International Migration. 29.2 (1991): 160.

Fernández Retamar, Fernando. Todo Calibán. San Juan, Puerto Rico: Ediciones Callejón, 2003.

Myers, Bill. “'Moors out of here’: A stabbing ignites an anti-immigrant backlash." U.S. News & World Report. 21 Feb. 2000: 37.

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