JUMP CUT
A REVIEW OF CONTEMPORARY MEDIA

 

 

Notes

  1. An earlier draft of this paper was presented at the Australian Women’s and Gender Studies Association International Conference: Vision, Memory and Spectacle, July 9-12, 2008, Perth, Australia. I would like to thank Dr. Leonie Stickland and Ms. Marilyn Metta for their comments on the paper. [return to page 1 of essay]

  2. Raphaël Millet, Singapore Cinema (Singapore: Editions Didier Millet, 2006), 10; Jan Uhde and Yvonne Ng Uhde, Latent Images: Film in Singapore (Singapore: Oxford University Press with Ngee Ann Polytechnic, 2000), 1-25.

  3. Uhde and Uhde, Latent Images, 28-31.

  4. Kenneth Paul Tan, Cinema and Television in Singapore: Resistance in One Dimension (The Netherlands: Brill, 2008), 41-44.

  5. Chua Beng Huat and Yeo Wei Wei, “Singapore cinema: Eric Khoo and Jack Neo — critique from the margins and the mainstream,” Inter-Asia Cultural Studies 4, no.1 (2003): 117-125; Ho Tzu Nyen, “The afterimage — traces of otherness in recent Singaporean cinema,” Inter-Asia Cultural Studies 8, no.2 (2007): 310-326; Olivia Khoo, “Slang images: on the foreignness of contemporary Singaporean films,” Inter-Asia Cultural Studies 7, no.1 (2006): 81-98; Michael Lee, “Dead Man Gazing: Posthumous Voyeurism in 12 Storeys, or ‘Splacing Singapore’s Official and Unofficial Discourses?’” Asian Cinema 11, no.2 (2000): 99-132; Tan, Cinema and Television in Singapore, 145-252; Tan See Kam, Michael Lee, and Annette Aw, “Contemporary Singapore filmmaking: history, policies and Eric Khoo,” Jump Cut: A Review of Contemporary Media 46 (2003), (accessed June 5, 2008).
    http://www.ejumpcut.org/archive/jc46.2003/12storeys/text.html


  6. Douglas Tseng, “The Superpower of Sequels,” The Straits Times, January 19, 2008.

  7. Tan, Cinema and Television in Singapore, 238-247.

  8. Ibid., 250.

  9. The New Paper, “100 Getai Videos Posted On Youtube,” The Electric New Paper, August 27, 2007, under “Mini Documentary,”
    http://tnp.sg/printfriendly/0,4139,139987,00.html (accessed January 21, 2008).


  10. Hong Xinyi, “Hokkien Heavenly King,” The Straits Times, August 12, 2007,(accessed July 5, 2008).
    http://www.straitstimes.com/Free/Story/STIStory_147582.html


  11. Straits Times Online Mobile Print(STOMP), “Getai A-Go-Go,” STOMP Website (accessed July 6, 2008),
    http://getai.stomp.com.sg/getai/index.jsp


  12. Tseng, “The Superpower of Sequels.”

  13. Zhao Wei Films, “881 — Festivals,” Zhao Wei Films, (accessed July 21, 2008).
    http://www.zhaowei.com/881/festivals.html


  14. The New Paper, “Royston’s more famous in Korea than Singapore,” The Electric New Paper, October 11, 2007 (accessed February 21, 2009).http://newpaper.asia1.com.sg/printfriendly/0,4139,144493,00.html
  15. Singapore Department of Statistics, Singapore in Figures 2008 (Singapore: Singapore Department of Statistics, 2008) (accessed February 21, 2009), 5.,
    http://www.singstat.gov.sg/pubn/reference/sif2008.pdf

  16. Ibid., 1.

  17. Housing Development Board, “A brief background — HDB’s beginnings,” Housing Development Board (accessed June 17, 2008).
    http://www.hdb.gov.sg/fi10/fi10296p.nsf/WPDis/
    About%20UsA%20Brief%20Background%20-%20HDB's
    %20Beginnings?OpenDocument&SubMenu=A_Brief_Background

  18. Chua Beng Huat, Communitarian Ideology and Democracy in Singapore (London: Routledge, 1995), 68.

  19. Chua Beng Huat and Eddie C.Y. Kuo, “The making of a new nation: cultural construction and national identity,” in Chua, Communitarian Ideology and Democracy, 116.

  20. Chang Han-Yin, “Singapore: Education and Change of Class Stratification,” Southeast Asian Studies 32, no. 4 (1995): 456.

  21. Goh Chok Tong, Prime Minister’s National Day Rally Speech: First-World Economy, World Class Home, August 27, 1999, under “Bonding Cosmopolitans and Heartlanders,” (accessed June 17, 2008).
    http://stars.nhb.gov.sg/stars/public/viewHTML.jsp?pdfno=1999082202

  22. Ibid. In this quotation, Singlish refers to a form of pidgin English widely spoken by Singaporeans. It is a mixture of English, Malay and Chinese dialects, especially Hokkien.

  23. Elaine Ho Lynn-Ee, “Negotiating belonging and perceptions of citizenship in a transnational world: Singapore, a cosmopolis?” Social & Cultural Geography 7, no. 3 (2006): 388-89.

  24. Chua, Communitarian Ideology and Democracy, 14-16; 141.

  25. Tan, Cinema and Television in Singapore, 194-195; Tan et al., “Contemporary Singapore filmmaking,” under “Unorthodoxies of Eric Khoo’s early films.”

  26. Tan et al., “Contemporary Singapore filmmaking,” under “Unorthodoxies of Eric Khoo’s early films.”

  27. Chua and Yeo, “Singapore cinema,” 120.

  28. Uhde and Uhde, Latent Images, 127.

  29. Chua and Yeo, “Singapore cinema,” 124.

  30. Tan, Cinema and Television in Singapore, 150-159. [return to page 2]

  31. Ho, “The afterimage,” 315-19.

  32. Kyle Minor, “Dispatches from the 2004 Sundance Film Festival: Day 3,” McSweeneys.net (accessed February 21, 2009).
    http://www.mcsweeneys.net/links/sundance/day3.html

  33. Tan, Cinema and Television in Singapore, 213-14.

  34. Felicia Chan, “When is a foreign-language film not a foreign-language film? When it has too much English in it: The case of a Singapore film and the Oscars,” Inter-Asia Cultural Studies 9, no.1 (2008): 101.

  35. Ho, “The afterimage,” 318.

  36. Lee Sze Yong, “Girl Power,” The Straits Times, August 9, 2007 (accessed July 3, 2008),
    http://www.asiaone.com/print/Wine%252CDine%2B%2526%
    2BUnwind/Unwind/Showtime/Story/A1Story20070815-22003.html
    .

  37. The Frankfurt School refers to a group of German theorists known for their criticism towards mass media and cultural production in an advanced capitalist society. The key Frankfurt School theorists included Theodore Adorno, Max Horkheimer, Herbert Marcuse, and Walter Benjamin. The Frankfurt School generally held the view that popular culture encouraged conformity to the existing capitalist order and whittled away people’s desire to change the system.

  38. Tan, Cinema and Television in Singapore, 37.

  39. Ibid., 248-252.

  40. Millet, Singapore Cinema, 93-94.

  41. Ibid., 94-95.

  42. Tan, Cinema and Television in Singapore, 252.

  43. Quoted in Valarie Tan, “Royston Tan to make S$1 m musical on ‘Getai’,” Channel News Asia Web Site, February 7, 2007 (accessed December 5, 2007),
    http://www.channelnewsasia.com/stories/
    singaporelocalnews/view/257207/1/.html
    .

  44. Tan, Cinema and Television in Singapore, 251-252.

  45. Khoo, “Slang images,” 94.

  46. Mikhail Bakhtin, Rabelais and His World (Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1984), 10.

  47. Ibid., 24. [return to page 3]

  48. Ibid., 48.

  49. Jovanda Biston, “Singapore film on music for dead brings Hokkien to life,” Reuters, September 1, 2007 (accessed December 16, 2007),
    http://www.reuters.com/article/sphereNews/
    idUSSP27516220070901?sp=true&view=sphere
    .

  50. Quoted in Lee, “Girl Power.”

  51. John H. Chamberlayne, “The development of Kuan Yin: Chinese Goddess of Mercy,” Numen 9, no. 1 (1962): 46-48.

  52. Kathleen Rowe, The Unruly Woman: Gender and the Genres of Laughter (Austin, Texas: University of Texas Press, 1995), 19.

  53. Ibid., 26-51.

  54. Ibid., 31.

  55. Ibid.

  56. Lim Lee Choon and Cynthia Oh Shih Chia, “Getai fans and their favorite host: participant observation and in-depth interview” (unpublished manuscript, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, 2007), 3; 18.

  57. Media Development Authority, “881 — A Royston Tan Film,” February 7, 2007, under “881 — The Premise,” (accessed June 30, 2008)
    http://www.mda.gov.sg/wms.www/thenewsdesk.aspx?sid=773.

  58. Uhde and Uhde, Latent Images, 128-29.

  59. Uhde and Uhde, Latent Images, 128; Chris Berry and Mary Farquhar, China on Screen: Cinema and Nation (New York: Columbia University Press, 2006), 219-22.

  60. Stephen Teo, Hong Kong Cinema: The Extra Dimensions (London: British Film Institute, 1997), 31.

  61. Ibid., 30.

  62. Ibid., 29-30.

  63. Ibid., 34.

  64. Ibid.

  65. Fran Martin, “Wild Women and Mechanical Men: A Review of The Hole,” Intersections: Gender , History and Culture in the Asian Context 4 (2000), (accessed February 2, 2009).
    http://intersections.anu.edu.au/issue4/holereview.html

  66. Millet, Singapore Cinema, 111; Tan, Cinema and Television in Singapore, 223.

  67. Hong Kong Nocturne, starring Cheng Pei Pei and Peter Chen Ho, is about three daughters of a musician, who perform song and dance numbers during their father’s magic show. Resentful of their father’s womanizing ways, the three girls leave their father to pursue to their own careers, but are eventually reunited with their father after they experience emotional problems and trials. In Hong Kong Rhapsody, an orphaned girl, Xiaoping, seeks refuge with her father’s friend, a magician called Chen Zixin. In a stormy night, Xiaoping and Zixin take shelter in a vacant mansion, throwing a feast for the poor and destitute. The rich owner of the mansion arrives, but takes a liking towards Xiaoping, as he suspects that Xiaoping is his long-lost grand-daughter. He later sponsors the production of a musical with Xiaoping as the lead performer.

  68. Teo, Hong Kong Cinema, 35-36.

  69. Ibid.

  70. Loh Keng Fatt, “881 soundtrack a bestseller,” The Straits Times, August 31, 2007 (accessed June 30, 2008),
    http://www.asiaone.com/Wine%252CDine%2B%2526%2BUnwind/
    Unwind/Music/Story/A1Story20070903-23988.html
    ;
    Biston, “Singapore film on music,” under “Vanishing.”

  71. Chua Beng Huat, Life is not complete without shopping: consumption culture in Singapore (Singapore: Singapore University Press, 2003), 164.

  72. Eddie C. Y. Kuo, “Television and language planning in Singapore,” International Journal of Sociology of Language 48 (1984): 50. [return to page 4 of essay]

  73. Chua, Life is not complete, 169; Tan, Cinema and Television in Singapore, 152.

  74. Chua, Life is not complete, 168-69.

  75. Ibid., 170.

  76. Tan, Cinema and Television in Singapore, 152.

  77. Chua, Life is not complete, 169.

  78. Biston, “Singapore film on music,”; Loh, “881 soundtrack.”

  79. Quoted in Biston, ‘Singapore film on music,” under “Rebel Language.”

  80. Chua, Life is not complete, 171.

  81. Chiew Seen Kong, “The Socio-cultural Framework of Politics,” in Understanding Singapore Society, ed. Ong Jin Hui, Tong Chee Kiong, and Tan Ern Ser (Singapore: Times Academic Press, 1997), 87-88.

  82. Singapore Department of Statistics, “General Household Survey 2005 Statistical Release 1: Socio-demographic and Economic Characteristics,” (accessed February 22, 2009), 17.
    http://www.singstat.gov.sg/pubn/popn/ghsr1/ghs05r1.pdf

  83. Raj Vasil, Asianising Singapore: The PAP’s Management of Ethnicity (Singapore: Heinemann Asia, 1995), 127-129.

  84. Jane Feuer, The Hollywood Musical, 2nd ed. (Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1993), 67-85.

  85. Ibid., 84.

  86. Jeremy Butler, “The Hollywood Musical: Peel Away the Tinsel,” Jump Cut 31 (March 1986): 17-18, (accessed February 10, 2009).
    http://www.ejumpcut.org/archive/onlinessays/
    JC31folder/FeuerMusRev.html

  87. Chuck Kleinhans, “Cultural Appropriation and Subcultural Expression: The Dialectics of Cooptation and Resistance” (paper presented at the Northwesterm University Center for the Humanities, Chicago, IL, November 14, 1994), 6.

  88. Lee, “Girl Power.”

  89. Quoted in Channel New Asia, “Royston Tan just can’t get enough of numbers,” Channel News Asia Web Site, March 13, 2007, (accessed July 6, 2008).
    http://www.channelnewsasia.com/stories/
    entertainment/view/263662/1/.html

  90. Beverley Skeggs, Class, Self, Culture (London: Routledge, 2004), 107-108.

  91. Kleinhans, “Cultural Appropriation,” 4.

  92. Skeggs, Class, Self, Culture, 112-13.

  93. Box Office Mojo, “Singapore Yearly Box Office 2008,” Box Office Mojo, (accessed February 23, 2009)
    http://www.boxofficemojo.com/intl/singapore/yearly/ ;
    Valarie Tan, “MediaCorp Raintree Pictures’ ‘881’ crosses S$3m mark at box office,” Channel News Asia Website, September 12, 2007, (accessed June 30, 2008).
    http://www.channelnewsasia.com/stories/
    singaporelocalnews/view/299668/1/.html

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Filmography

12 Lotus / Shi Er Lian Hua. Directed by Royston Tan. Singapore: Studio 10 Twenty-Eight Production, Mediacorp Raintree Pictures, Infinite Frameworks, Scorpio East Pictures, 2008.

12 Storeys. Directed by Eric Khoo. Singapore: Zhao Wei Films, 1997.

15. Directed by Royston Tan. Singapore: Zhao Wei Films, 2003.

881. Directed by Royston Tan. Singapore: Mediacorp Raintree Pictures, Zhao Wei Films, Media Development Authority, Scorpio East Pictures, Infinite Frameworks, 2007.

Air Hostess / Kongzhong Xiaojie. Directed by Yi Wen. Hong Kong: Cathay/MP & GI, 1959.

Be With Me. Directed by Eric Khoo. Singapore: Zhao Wei Films, 2005.

Forever Fever. Directed by Glenn Goei. Singapore: Tiger Tiger Productions, 1998.

Hong Kong Nocturne / Xiangjiang Hua Yue Ye. Directed by Inoue Umetsugu. Hong Kong: Shaw Brothers, 1967.

Hong Kong Rhapsody / Hua Yue Liang Xiao. Directed by Inoue Umetsugu. Hong Kong: Shaw Brothers, 1968.

I Not Stupid. Directed by Jack Neo. Singapore: Mediacorp Raintree Pictures, 2002.

I Not Stupid Too. Directed by Jack Neo. Singapore: Mediacorp Raintree Pictures, 2006.

Mambo Girl /Manbo Nülang. Directed by Yi Wen. Hong Kong: Cathay/MP & GI, 1957.

Mee Pok Man. Directed by Eric Khoo. Singapore: Zhao Wei Films, 1995.

Money No Enough. Directed by Tay Teck Lock. Singapore: JSP Entertainment, 1998.

Song of a Songstress / Genü Zhige. Directed by Fang Peilin. China: Qidong Film Company, 1948.

Street Angel / Malu Tianshi. Directed by Yuan Muzhi. China: Mingxing (Star) Film Company, 1937.

The Hole / Dong. Directed by Tsai Ming-liang. Taiwan: Haut et Court, Le Sept Arte, Arc Light Films, China Television, Central Motion Picture Corporation, 1998.

The Loving Couple / Xin Xin Xiang Yin. Directed by Yi Wen. Hong Kong: Cathay/MP & GI, 1960.

The Wild Wild Rose / Ye Meigui Zhi Lian . Directed by Wang Tianlin. Hong Kong: Cathay/ MP & GI, 1960.


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