1. The other two formats were broadcast on the private channel La7, a minor channel that has often been presented as the "alternative" to the duopolistic diatribe between RAI and Mediaset. [return to page 1 of essay]

2. For more on the decline of public service media, see: Tracey, 1998; Dahlgren, 1995; Holtz-Bacha and Norris, 2001.

3. For instance, the purpose of the program is summarized as follows: “To show 'Bride vs. Mother-in-Law' competition to the millions, which theme has not been mentioned in any competition program until today, and to witness a great competition by disclosing the war full of intrigues lasting for centuries in every detail.”

4. An in-depth study of the concept of "medialect" can be found in Hjarvard’s article, “The Globalization of Language: How the Media Contribute to the Spread of English and the Emergence of Medialects.” (2004).

5. For more on Turkey-EU relations, see: Kubicek, 2005.

6. This section has been adapted from my previously published research on Italian television: Ardizzoni, 2007, chapter 5. [return to page 2 of essay]

7. In 2001, during the second Berlusconi government, three RAI journalists (Enzo Biagi, Michele Santoro, and Daniele Luttazzi) were criticized and, eventually, fired for having used public television to express their left-wing ideas. For more details on this, see:


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