1. Thanks to Benjamin Birkinbine for research assistance and for creating and captioning the visual narrative for this essay. [return to page 1 of essay]

2. All information on News Corporation is taken from its 10K filed in 2009.

3. The remainder was owned by the National Geographic Society.

4. Information on Disney was taken from its 10k filed in 2009 (Disney, 2009b) and Disney Facts. Information on Time Warner originated in its 10k filed in 2009.

5. The original ESPN channel was owned by Disney (80%) and Hearst Corporation (20%) as were the two Lifetime channels (50-50%). History and Biography were split between GE, Hearst, and Disney (37.5 % each). A&E, Biography, History, Lifetime, and the Lifetime Movie Network were subsumed under A&E Television Networks in August 2009 (Disney, 2009a and b).


7. GE broke out its aviation operations separately from transportation operations, possibly because of the military focus of some aviation operations. Because aviation would seem to qualify as transportation, I include GE’s aviation operations in this category.

8. Information on Vivendi was taken from 6k filed regarding Vivendi’s media purchases from Matsushita in 2006, Vivendi’s 2006 and 2009 Annual Reports, and from Caslon Analytics “Vivendi Universal Group.” As a French company, Vivendi filed no 10k reports. [return to page 2]

9. MSNBC was briefly co-owned with software giant Microsoft.

10. Bravo was repositioned as a reality series channel, with many series focused on strife at work: The Restaurant (chef vs. backer), Blow Out (hair stylists), Work Out (personal trainers) and Flipping Out (housing speculators).

11. In television history, CBS was Viacom’s metaphoric parent. When the FCC ruled in 1971 that the networks had to get out of series’ production and syndication, CBS spun off its production unit and television library, creating the independent firm Viacom.

12. The language in the 2008 10ks for CBS and Viacom on this was almost identical, cf., Viacom, page 28-30 and CBS p. 31-32 on Redstone’s use of National Amusements to control and limit the activities of CBS and Viacom.

13. Information on Viacom before the split was drawn from Viacom’s 2005 10k and, after the split, from the company’s 2009 10k. Information on CBS was drawn from its 2006 and 2009 10ks.

14. The Smithsonian Institution owned the remaining 10%.

15. The film was Star Trek (2009), directed by J.J. Abrams. The five television series were Star Trek (1966-1969); Star Trek: The Next Generation (1987-1994); Star Trek: Deep Space Nine (1993-1999); Star Trek: Voyager (1995-2001); and Star Trek: Enterprise (2001-2005).


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