1. Young-jin Kim, Lee Chang-dong (Seoul: Korean Film Council, 2007): 23. [return to page 1 of essay]
2. ibid, 19.
3. ibid, x.
4. ibid, 9.
5. ibid, 90.
6. ibid, 64.
7. M sold 448,350 tickets in South Korea; by contrast, Secret Sunshine had sales of 1,710,364 (data from the Korean Film Council, available on-line at
8. I’m a Cyborg, But That’s OK sold only 739, 481 tickets in South Korea, despite the presence of the international pop star Rain (aka Jung Ji-Hoon).
9. Young-jin Kim, 4.
10. ibid, 5.
11. ibid, 4.
12. To give one example among the numerous available, the documentary Directed by John Ford (Peter Bogdanovich, 1971) has Ford repeatedly refuting Bogdanovich’s attempts to read deeper meaning into his work.
13. For a intelligent discussion of the extreme variation between “fast” mainstream and “slow” art cinema style, see Matthew Flanagan, “Towards an Aesthetic of Slow in Contemporary Cinema,” 16:9 no. 29 (November 2008);
14. Darcy Paquet, “Secret Sunshine,”
15. Young-jin Kim, 66-67.
16. A succinct yet cogent overview of Saussure and his ideas can be found in Catherine Belsey, “Chapter 1: Creatures of Difference” in her Poststructuralism: A Very Short Introduction (New York: Oxford University Press, 2002): 1-22.
17. David Bordwell, “Intensified Continuity: Visual Style in Contemporary American Film,” Film Quarterly 55, no. 3 (2002): 16-28.
18. For example, most of the higher ASLs on the Cinemetrics website come from the last two decades: Satantango (Bela Tarr, 1994), ASL 145 seconds; Eternity and a Day (Theo Angelopoulos, 1998), ASL 114 seconds; and Woman is the Future of Man (Hong Sang-soo, 2004), ASL 98 seconds.
19. Brian Henderson, “Toward a Non-Bourgeois Camera Style,” in Movies and Methods, Volume I (edited by Bill Nichols) (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1976): 388-400.
20. To quote Burch directly: “Judged according to the stylistic criterion of dominant criticism, Life of Oharu (1952) and Sansho Dayu (1954) are no doubt in all respects the equal of Sisters of the Gion or The Story of the Last Chrysanthemum. But from our historically and theoretically oriented standpoint the importance of these early films is incomparably greater; their superior internal rigor is due in large part to the director’s fidelity to the otherness of his native culture – just as his ultimate decline must be understood within the context of Japan’s historical situation and that of her cinema after the 1945 defeat.” Noël Burch, To the Distant Observer: Form and Meaning in the Japanese Film (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1979): 246.
21. André Bazin, “The Evolution of the Language of Cinema,” in What is Cinema? Volume 1 (Translated by Hugh Gray) (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1971): 35.
22. Bazin, 36.
23. Kristin Thompson, Storytelling in the New Hollywood: Understanding Classical Narrative Technique (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1999). Also, see Thompson follow-up blog post, “Times Go By Turns,” (June 21, 2008), available at:
24. David Bordwell, “The Art Cinema as a Mode of Film Practice,” in Poetics of Cinema (New York: Routledge, 2008): 151-169.
25. Linda Williams, Playing the Race Card: Melodramas of Black and White From Uncle Tom to O.J. Simpson (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2002): 38.
26. Kyung Hyun Kim, The Remasculinization of Korean Cinema (Durham: Duke University Press, 2004): 26. [return to page 3]
27. So Young Kim, “Do not include me in your ‘us’: Peppermint Candy and the Politics of Difference,” Korea Journal 46, no. 1 (Spring 2006): 60-83.
28. Martha P. Nochimson, “Anxiety: New York Film Festival Report (Part One),” Film-Philosophy 11, no. 3: 7-8.
29. Young-jin Kim, 75.
30. ibid, 79.