JUMP CUT
A REVIEW OF CONTEMPORARY MEDIA

 

 

Notes

[1] N
[return to page 1 of essay]

Notes

1. Walter Benjamin, Illuminations. Harry Zohn, trans. Edited and with an Introduction by Hannah Arendt(Suffolk: The Chaucer Press, 1983), pp. 228-229. [return to text]

2. Ibid., pp. 238-239.

3. Asha Kasbekar, Pop Culture India! Media, Arts and Lifestyle (California: ABC-CLIO, 2006), p. 179

4. Soudhamini, “Tamil Cinema—The Significant Other,” in Behind the Scenes of Hindi Cinema, ed. Marijke de Vos (Amsterdam: KIT Publishers, 2005), p. 118. See also: Selvaraj Velayutham, “Introduction: The Cultural History and Politics of South Indian Tamil Cinema,” in Tamil Cinema—The cultural politics of India’s other film industry, ed. Selvaraj Velayutham (New York: Routledge, 2008); and Duncan Forrester, “Factions and Filmstars: Tamil Nadu Politics since 1971,” Asian Survey 16, 3 (March, 1976).

5. Robert L. Hardgrave, Jr., “Politics and the Film in Tamilnadu: The Stars and the DMK,” Asian Survey 13, 3 (March, 1973).

6. Robert L. Hardgrave Jr., Essays in the Political Sociology of South India (New Delhi: Manohar Publishers and Distributors, 1993).

7. Robert L. Hardgrave Jr. and Anthony C. Neidhart, “Film and Political Consciousness in Tamil Nadu,” Economic and Political Weekly 10, (January 11, 1973).

8. Sara Dickey, Cinema and the Urban Poor in South India (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993); Sara Dickey, “The Politics of Adulation: Cinema and the Production of Politicians in South India” The Journal of Asian Studies 52, 2 (May, 1993); Martyn Rogers, “Between Fantasy and “Reality’: Tamil Film Star Fan Club Networks and the Political Economy of Film Fandom,” South Asia: Journal of South Asian Studies 32, 1 (April, 2009).

9. S. Theodore Baskaran, History through the Lens—Perspectives on South Indian Cinema (Hyderabad: Orient Black Swan, 2009), p. 17.

10. Stephen P. Hughes, “Policing Silent Film Exhibition in Colonial South India,” in Making Meaning in Indian Cinema, ed. Ravi S. Vasudevan (New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2000). See also, Stephen P. Hughes, “The “Music Boom” in Tamil South India: gramophone, radio and the making of mass culture,” Historical Journal of Film, Radio and Television 22, 4 (2002).

11. S. Theodore Baskaran, The Message Bearers: Nationalist Politics and the Entertainment Media in South India, 1884-1945 (Madras: Cre-A, 1981).

12. M. S. S. Pandian, The Image Trap—M.G. Ramachandran in Film and Politics (New Delhi: Sage Publications Inc., 1992).

13. Dickey, Cinema and the Urban Poor in South India, p. 56.

14. David B. Pratt, “‘We Must Make the Government Tremble’: Political Filmmaking in the South Indian State of Tamil Nadu,” The Velvet Light Trap 34 (Fall, 1994), p. 10.

15. Sathiavathi Chinniah, “The Tamil Film Heroine—From a passive subject to a pleasurable object,” in Tamil Cinema—The cultural politics of India’s other film industry, ed. Selvaraj Velayutham (London: Routledge, 2008), p. 35.

16. Marc Ferro, Cinema and History (Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1988), p. 82.

17. Ibid., pp. 82-83.

18. Dudley Andrew, “Film and History,” in The Oxford Guide to Film Studies, eds. John Hill and Pamela Church Gibson (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998), p. 183.

19. John O” Connor, "History in Images/Images in History: Reflections of the Importance of Film and Television Study for an Understanding of the past," The American Historical Review 93, 5 (December, 1988), p. 1205.

20. Dickey, “The Politics of Adulation: Cinema and the Production of Politicians in South India,” p. 342.

21. Pandian, The Image Trap, p. 78.

22. Ibid.

23. Ashish Rajadhyaksha and Paul Willemen, Encyclopedia of Indian Cinema (New Revised Edition), (New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1999), pp. 31-32.

24. Dickey, Cinema and the Urban Poor in South India, p. 3.

25. Velayutham, “Introduction: The Cultural History and Politics of South Indian Tamil Cinema,” p. 5.

26. Sunil Khilnani, The Idea of India (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996), p. 30. [return to page 2]

27. Khilnani, The Idea of India, p. 38.

28. Thought, 20 May 1972, cited in Guha, India After Gandhi, p. 447.

29. Ayesha Jalal, Democracy and authoritarianism in South Asia (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998), p. 67.

30. Jalal, Democracy and authoritarianism in South Asia, p. 67.

31. Ibid.

32 Sudipta Kaviraj, “A Critique of the Passive Revolution,” in State and Politics in India, ed. Partha Chatterjee (Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1997), p. 74.

33. Sudipta Kaviraj, “Indira Gandhi and Indian Politics,” Economic and Political Weekly 21, 38/39 (September 20-27, 1986), p. 1699.

34. Ibid.

35. T.V. Sathyamurthy, “Impact of Centre-State Relations on Indian Politics: An Interpretative Reckoning, 1947-1987,” Economic and Political Weekly 24, 38 (September 23, 1989), p. 2137.

36. Ibid.

37. Ibid.

38. Bipan Chandra, In the name of Democracy: JP movement and the Emergency (New Delhi: Penguin Books, 2003), p. 39.

39. Chandra, In the name of Democracy, p. 47.

40. P.N. Dhar, Indira Gandhi, the “Emergency” and Indian Democracy (New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2000), pp. 258-259.

41. Ramachandra Guha, India After Gandhi (London: Pan Macmillan Ltd., 2008), p. 493.

42. Kaviraj, “A Critique of the Passive Revolution,” p. 79.

43. Ibid., p. 78.

44. Ibid.

45. Chandra, In the name of Democracy, p. 157.

46. Ibid., p. 189.

47. Chandra, In the name of Democracy, p. 157.

48. Ibid., p. 207.

49. Khilnani, The Idea of India, p. 55.

50. “Glamour Politics in Command,” Economic and Political Weekly 12, 26 (June 25, 1977), p. 1009.

51. Karthigesu Sivathamby, “Politicians as Players,” The Drama Review: TDR 15, 2 (Spring, 1973), p. 217. See also: Hardgrave, “Politics and the Film in Tamilnadu,” p. 100.

52. Hardgrave, “Politics and the Film in Tamilnadu,” p. 292.

53. Ibid., p. 290.

54. Pandian, The Image Trap, p. 36.

55. Ibid., p. 42.

56. Sivathamby, “Politicians as Players,” p. 216.

57. Pandian., p. 33.

58. Narendra Subramanian, Ethnicity and Populist Mobilization—Political Parties, Citizens and Democracy in South India (Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1999), p. 249.

59. “Glamour Politics in Command,” pp. 1009-1010.

60. Subramanian, Ethnicity and Populist Mobilization, p. 247. [return to page 3]

61. Ibid., p. 310.

62. Ibid., p. 285.

63. Brindavan C. Moses, “Noon Meals Scheme,” Economic and Political Weekly 18, 4 (January 22, 1983), p. 101.

64. Subramanian, Ethnicity and Populist Mobilization, p. 286.

65. Madras Institute of Development Studies (MIDS), Tamil Nadu Economy: Performance and Issues (Madras, 1988), p. 345, cited in Pandian, The Image Trap, p. 23.

66. Ibid.

67. “The MGR Myth: An Appreciation,” Economic and Political Weekly 23, 1/2 (January 2-9, 1988), p. 23.

68. Pandian, The Image Trap, p. 36.

69. See: “NGO’s Strike,” Economic and Political Weekly 13, 12 (March 25, 1978) and “All-Out Attack on Working Class,” Economic and Political Weekly 13, 43/44 (October 28, 1978).

70. Between 1977-1981, “once every ten days an under trial died behind bars…the fate of the convicts was also more or less similar.” Pandian, The Image Trap, p. 25.

71. Pandian, The Image Trap, p. 26.

72. Atul Kohli, Democracy and Discontent: India's growing crisis of governability (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1990), p. 162.

73. Ingrid Widlund, Paths to Power and Patterns of Influence—The Dravidian Parties in South Indian Politics (Uppsala, Sweden : Uppsala Universitet, 2000), p. 80.

74. Pandian, The Image Trap, p. 124.

75. Pandian, The Image Trap, p. 124.

76. Dickey, “The Politics of Adulation: Cinema and the Production of Politicians in South India,” pp. 357-359

77. Pandian, The Image Trap, p. 121.

78. Another hundred more people attempted self-immolation but were prevented from killing themselves. Ibid., p. 18.

79. David Bordwell and Kristin Thompson, Film Art (New York: McGraw Hill, 2008), p. 327.

80. Bombay Chronicle (27 October, 1951), p. 3, cited in Ravi S. Vasudevan, “Shifting Codes, Dissolving Identities: The Hindi Social Film of the 1950s as Popular Culture” in Making Meaning in Indian Cinema, ed. Ravi S. Vasudevan (New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2000), p. 105.

81. Lalitha Gopalan, “Avenging Women in Indian Cinema,” in Making Meaning in Indian Cinema, ed. Ravi S. Vasudevan (New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2000), p. 218.

82. Muktha V. Sinivaasan, Thamilzh Thiraippada Varalaaru (Chennai: Gangai Puthakka Nilayum, pp. 25-26.

83. Sundar Kaali, “Narrating Seduction: Vicissitudes of the Sexed Subject in Tamil Nativity Film” in Making Meaning in Indian Cinema, ed. Ravi S. Vasudevan (New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2000), pp. 168-169.

84. Kaali, “Narrating Seduction,” pp. 173.

85. After Sigappu Rojakkal there was a resurgence of the suspense thriller/horror genre in Tamil cinema through films like Moodupani (‘Dew’, Dir. Balu Mahendra, 1980), Tik Tik Tik (Dir. Bharathirajaa, 1981) and Nooravathu Naal (“100th Day,” Dir. Manivannan, 1984).

85b. Rajadhyaksha and Willemen, Encyclopedia of Indian Cinema (New Revised Edition), pp. 435.

86. J.Ramki, Rajini: Sapthama? Sagaapthama? (Chennai: Kizhakku Pathippagam, 2005), p. 22.

87. Sinivaasan, Thamilzh Thiraippada Varalaaru, pp. 129.

88. Ibid.

89. Tamil films are typically close to three hours long and are designed with a break in the middle, at a high point of interest or suspense in the plot, to allow for an interval or intermission.

90. V.Ramamurthy, Nenjil Nirkum Nayagargal (Chennai: V. R. Pathipagam, 2008), pp. 151-152.

91. Velayutham, “Introduction: Thea Cultural History and Politics of South Indian Tamil Cinema,” p. 8.

91b. Jagpreet Luthra, “Black is Blemish in India” Al-Jazeera.Net (7th October, 2003). Web version. Accessed 27th February 2009.
http://english.aljazeera.net/archive/
2003/10/20084913256610287.html

92. Rajan Krishnan, “Rajini’s Sivaji: Screen and Sovereign,” Economic and Political Weekly 42, 27/28 (July 14, 2007), p. 2861. For a discussion of Vijayakanth’s recent foray into politics vis-à-vis Rajini’s reticence, see: Krishnan, “Rajini’s Sivaji: Screen and Sovereign,” p. 2863.

93. Susmita Dasgupta, Amitabh—The Making of a Superstar (New Delhi: Penguin Books, 2006), p. 13.

94. Ibid., p. 13.

95. Shiv Viswanathan, “Popcorn Nationalism,” India Today 33 (August, 2007), p. 92.

96. Fareeduddin Kazmi, “How angry is the Angry Young Man? Rebellion in Conventional Hindi Films” in The Secret Politics of Our Desires—Innocence, Culpability and Indian Popular Cinema, ed. Ashis Nandy (New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1998), p. 138.

97. Ramki, Rajini: Sapthama? Sagaapthama? p. 34.

98. Preminda Jacob, Celluloid Deities (Lanham, Maryland: Lexington Books, 2009), pp. 138-139.

99. Frederick G. Bailey, Humbuggery and Manipulation (Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press, 1988) p.119.

100. M. Madhava Prasad, Ideology of the Hindi Film (New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1998), p. 157.

101. Krishnan, “Rajini’s Sivaji: Screen and Sovereign,” p. 2861. [return to page 4]

102. James Combs, “Pox-Eclipse Now: The Dystopian Imagination in Contemporary Popular Movies,” in Crisis Cinema: The Apocalyptic Idea in Post-Modern Narrative Film, ed. Christopher Sharrett (Washington: Maisonneuve Press, 1993), p. 21.

103. Ibid., pp. 21-22.

104. M. Madhava Prasad, “Cine-Politics: On the Political Significance of Cinema in South India,” Journal of the Moving Image 1 (Autumn, 1999), p. 42.

105. Pandian, The Image Trap, p. 70.

106. Eric Hobsbawm, Bandits (Harmonsworth: Penguin Books, 1969), p. 17.

107. Soudhamini, “Tamil Cinema—The Significant Other,” p. 125.

108. I use the term action comedy to refer to a genre of action films different from the “AYM” genre. What differentiates many of the films in the “AYM” genre from the action comedy films is that in the latter, the films are neither gritty nor gory, and are largely light hearted. Even the over-the-top violence is presented in an almost cartoon-like manner to appeal to children for family viewing. The heroes in the action comedy films are mostly comic heroes, different from the anti-heroes in the “AYM” genre. Some action comedies were hit films like: Sagalakala Vallavan (‘Jack of all Trades, Dir. S. P. Muthuraman, 1982), Pokkiri Raja (‘Rogue King’, Dir. S. P.  Muthuraman, 1982), Thoongathey Thambi Thoongathey (‘Don’t Sleep Brother’, Dir. S. P. Muthuraman, 1983), Veilaikaran (‘Servant’, Dir. S. P. Muthuraman, 1987), Rajathi Raja (‘King of Kings’, Dir. R. Sunderajan, 1989), Raja Chinna Roja (‘Raja and the Small Flowers’, Dir. S. P. Muthuraman, 1989).

Soudhamini, “Tamil Cinema—The Significant Other,” p. 118.

110. K. Naresh Kumar, Indian Cinema—Ebbs and Tides (New Delhi: Har-Anand Publications, 1995), p. 87.

111. Dickey, Cinema and the Urban Poor in South India, p. 56.

112. MGR’s government tried to get the Union Minister for Information, Vasant Sathe to ban the film. When the request went unheeded, the police pressurized cinema theatre owners, and within weeks the film disappeared from circulation despite its popularity, Pandian, The Image Trap, p. 27.

113. Government of India, Ministry of Home Affairs, Third Report of the National Police Commission (Delhi, 1980), p. 26, cited in Lloyd I. Rudolph and Susanne Hoeber Rudolph, In Pursuit of Lakshmi (Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 1987), pp. 91.

115. Richard Corliss, “Hooray for Bollywood” Time (16 September, 1996). Web version. Accessed 27th February 2009.
(http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/
0,9171,985129,00.html?internalid=atm100
).

The film also found its way into Time’s Top 100 Films of all time in 2005: Richard Corliss and Richard Schickel, “All-Time 100 Movies” Time (2005). Web version. Accessed 27th February 2009.
(http://www.time.com/time/2005/
100movies/0,23220,nayakan,00.html
). 

Besides this international recognition, Nayakan also won numerous awards at India’s National Film Awards in 1988: Kamalhaasan won the award for Best Actor, P.C. Sriram won the award for Best Cinematography and Thotta Tharani won the award for Best Art Direction. The film was also nominated as India’s entry into for the Best Foreign Language Film at the Academy Awards in 1988.

116. Lalitha Gopalan, Cinema of Interruptions—Action Genres in Contemporary Indian Cinema (London: British Film Institute, 2002), p. 115.

117. Gopalan, Cinema of Interruptions, p. 117.

118. See: Special Correspondent, “Deaths in Police Lock-Up,” Economic and Political Weekly, 16, 39 (Sep. 26, 1981), p. 1568; P. A. Sebastian, “Deaths in Police Custody,” Economic and Political Weekly, 19, 11 (May 17, 1984), p. 447—448; A. G. Noorani, “Deaths in Police Custody,” Economic and Political Weekly,20, 28 (Jul 13, 1985), p. 1161 and P. A. Sebastian, “The State and the Police,” Economic and Political Weekly, 23, 43 (October 22, 1988), p. 2210-2211.

119 Gopalan, Cinema of Interruptions, p. 114.

120. Chinniah, “The Tamil Film Heroine—From a passive subject to a pleasurable object,” p. 35.

121. Ibid.

122. Indu Agnihotri and Vina Mazumdar, “Changing Terms of Political Discourse: Women’s Movement in India, 1970s-1990s ,” Economic and Political Weekly, 30, 29 (July 22, 1995), pp. 1870.   

123. Ibid.

124. The popularity of the film is evident in fan appreciation of the film. In an online poll, Naan Sigappu Manithan was voted as “Rajini’s best killer revenge film.” The film received more than half of all the votes cast. The poll can be found on the biggest Rajini fan website. Accessed: 27th February 2009:
(http://www.rajinifans.com/poll/
cast.php?opt=view&ID=65
).

125. Corey K. Creekmur, “Bombay Bhai: The Gangster in and Behind Popular Hindi Cinema” in Cinema, Law and the State in Asia, eds. Corey K. Creekmur and Mark Sidel (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007), p.  30.

126. Rudolph and Rudolph, In Pursuit of Lakshmi, pp. 121-122.

127. Gopalan, “Avenging Women in Indian Cinema,” p. 224. [return to page 5]

128. Viswanathan, “Popcorn Nationalism,” p. 92.

129. Ramachandra Guha, “The Axis Year,” Outlook 49, 41 (October 19, 2009), pp. 12-15.

130. Dickey, Cinema and the Urban Poor in South India, p. 56.

131. Sinivaasan, Thamilzh Thiraippada Varalaaru, p. 26.

132. Salil Tripathi, “Epic Spin-offs,” India Today (15 July, 1988): 150-151; Vasanthi and M. Kalyankumar, “Arms and the Men,” India Today (30 April, 1993): 72-73.

133. “Interview with Rajini” published in the Tamil-language magazine, Kalki (15 January, 1989), cited in Ramki, Rajini: Sapthama? Sagaapthama?, p. 48.

134. Venkatesh Chakravarthy, “Eliminating Dissent: The Political Films of Mani Ratnam,” The Toronto Review 17, 3 (Summer, 1999), p. 22.

135. Ranajit Guha, Elementary Aspects of Peasant Insurgency in Colonial India, (New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1983), p. 18.

136. Sanjay Seth, “From Maoism to postcolonialism? The Indian “Sixties’, and beyond,” Inter-Asia Cultural Studies 7, 4 (2006), p. 596.

137. Seth, “From Maoism to postcolonialism?” p. 596.

138. Manomohan Ghosh, The Natya?astra—Ascribed to Bharata-Muni (Calcutta: The Royal Asiatic Society of Bengal, 1950), pp. 107-108; 112-113.

139. Aranthai Narayanan, Thamizh Cinemavin Kathai (Chennai: New Century Book House Pte. Ltd., 2008), p. 716.

140. “Politicians and Films,” Aside (November 1-15, 1988): 49.

141. M. Allirajan, “Holding sway with Social Themes,” The Hindu (21  March, 2005). Web version. Accessed 27th February 2009.
(http://www.hindu.com/mp/2005/03/
21/stories/2005032100230100.htm
).

142. Ibid.

143. Narayanan, Thamizh Cinemavin Kathai, p. 714.

144. Pratt, “’We Must Make the Government Tremble’: Political Filmmaking in the South Indian State of Tamil Nadu,” p. 10.

145. Pandian, The Image Trap, p. 27.

146. MGR initiated the Tamil Nadu Cinema Regulation (Second Amendment) Bill, which banned the exhibition of films “deemed derogatory to legislators and allowing for the imprisonment of the producers and directors of any such films.” Though the Bill was passed by the Assembly in May 1987, the Governor refused to sign it into law, “seeing it as a dangerous expansion of state powers,” Pratt, “’We Must Make the Government Tremble’: Political Filmmaking in the South Indian State of Tamil Nadu,” pp. 30-31.

147. “I Don’t Like to Rest—Interview with K. Balachander,” New Sunday Express (September 10, 2006).

148. Gopalan, Cinema of Interruptions, p. 109.

Maria Giovanna, “Making Movies with Mani Ratnam,” Rediff.com (30 April, 2008). Web Version. Accessed 27th February 2009.
(http://www.rediff.com/movies/
2008/apr/30mani.htm
).

150. M. S. S. Pandian, “Varadaraja Mudhaliar: Counter-Obituary,” Economic and Political Weekly 23, (April 23, 1988) p. 831.

151. Ibid.

152. Pandian, “Varadaraja Mudhaliar: Counter-Obituary,” p. 831.

153. Venkatesh Chakravarthy and M. S. S. Pandian “‘Iruvar’: Transforming History into Commodity,” Economic and Political Weekly, 32, 47 (November 22-28, 1997), p. 2997.

154. Nayakan’s art director Thotta Tharani claimed that “nothing less than verisimilitude would satisfy him and his director Mani Ratnam.” Lalitha Gopalan’s analysis of vehicles in the film attests to this claim. “‘Cinema” Sunday, 21-27 February 1988” cited in Gopalan, Cinema of Interruptions, p. 112.

155. Madhu Jain, “Political Pot-Boilers,” India Today 22, 17 (September 1-15, 1988), pp. 82-83.

156. Sreedhar Pillai, “Malayalam Films—Reel Life,” India Today 12, 4 (February 28, 1987), pp. 78.

157. Dickey, Cinema and the Urban Poor in South India, pp. 69.

158. Michel Foucault, The Archeology of Knowledge. A.M. Sheridan Smith, trans. (New York: Pantheon, 1982), p. 7.

159. Jean-Luc Comolli and Jean Narboni, “Cinema/Ideology/Criticism” in Movies and Methods: An Anthology, ed. Bill Nichols (California: University of California Press, 1976), pp. 26-27. [return to page 6 of essay]

160. Comolli and Narboni, “Cinema/Ideology/Criticism,” pp. 26-27.

161. Donald MacRae, “Populism as an Ideology” in Populism—Its Meanings and National Characteristics, eds. Ghita Ionescu and Ernest Gellner (London: Weidenfield and Nicolson, 1969), p. 158.

162. Vijay Mishra, Bollywood Cinema—Temples of Desire (New York: Routledge, 2002), p. 15.

163. Guha, India After Gandhi, p. 494.

164. Peter Wiles, “A  Syndrome, Not a Doctrine: Some Elementary Theses on Populism” in Populism—Its Meanings and National Characteristics, eds.  Ghita Ionescu and Ernest Gellner (London: Weidenfield and Nicolson, 1969), p. 166.

165. Pamela Price, “Kingly Models in Indian Political Behavior: Culture as a Medium of History,” Asian Survey 29, 6 (June, 1989), p. 571.

166. Pandian, The Image Trap, p. 132.

167. Ibid., p. 20.

168. Rajan Krishnan, “Rajini’s Sivaji: Screen and Sovereign,” Economic and Political Weekly 42, 27/28 (July 14, 2007), p. 2861.

169. K. Muralidaran, “Arasiyalil Minnuvara Rajni?,” India Today Tamil—Rajini SpecialIssue (August, 2007), p. 19.

170. Ibid.

171. Ibid.

172. Muralidaran, “Arasiyalil Minnuvara Rajni?,” p. 19.

173. Krishnan, “Rajini’s Sivaji: Screen and Sovereign,” p. 2861.

174. Krishnan, “Rajini’s Sivaji: Screen and Sovereign,” p. 2861.

175. Ibid.

176. A. Ramasamy, “Rajinikanth: Cinema Arasiyal” in Olinilal Ulagam-Thamilzh Cinema Katooraigal, eds. A. Ramasamy (Chennai: Kalachuvadu Pathippagam, 2004), p. 78.

177. M. S. S. Pandian "LEADER ARTICLE: Why Rajini Rules.” The Times of India (23 June, 2007). Web Version. Accessed 27th February 2009.
http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/
articleshow/2142400.cms

178. For a discussion of the latent and manifest nationalist message in Roja, see: Tejaswini Niranjana, “Integrating Whose Nation? Tourists and Terrorists in “Roja’,” Economic and Political Weekly, 29, 3 (January 15, 1994), pp. 79-82; Venkatesh Chakravarthy and M. S. S. Pandian, “More on Roja,” Economic and Political Weekly, 29, 11 (March 12, 1994), pp. 642-644; and Rustom Bharucha, “On the Border of Fascism: Manufacture of Consent in Roja,” Economic and Political Weekly, 29, 23 (June 4, 1994), pp. 1389-1395.   

179. For the rise of the new Indian citizen-consumer, see: Vivek Dhareshwar and Tejaswini Niranjana, “Kaadalan and the Politics of Resignification: Fashion, Violence and the Body” in Making Meaning in Indian Cinema, ed. Ravi S.Vasudevan (New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2000), pp. 191-214.

180. For a study on the Telugu dubbing of Indian released as Bharateeyuddu, see: Tejaswini Niranjana and S.V. Srinivas, “Managing the Crisis: “Bharateeyudu” and the Ambivalence of Being “Indian’,” Economic and Political Weekly, 31, 48 (November 30, 1996), pp. 3129-3134.

181. For a critical study of Rajini’s recent blockbuster Sivaji and the star’s dalliance with politics see: Krishnan, “Rajini’s Sivaji: Screen and Sovereign,” p. 2861 and, M Vijayabaskar and Andrew Wyatt, “The Many Messages of Sivaji,” Economic and Political Weekly 42, 44 (November 3—November 9, 2007).

182.   Pradeep Sebastian, “Beyond Old Kollywood,” The Hindu (13 January, 2008). Web version. Accessed 27th February 2009.
(http://www.hinduonnet.com/thehindu/thscrip/
print.pl?file=2008011350150500.htm&date=
2008/01/13/&prd=mag&
).

183. Chidananda Das Gupta, The Painted Face: Studies in India's popular cinema (New Delhi: Roli Books, 1991), pp. 262-284.

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Filmography

Name of Movie Director Lead Actor Production Company Year
Bhairavi M.Bhaskar Rajinikanth Valli Velan Movies 1978
Thai Meethu Sathiyam R.Thyagarajan Rajinikanth Devar Films 1978
En Kelvikku Enna Bathil P.Madhavan Rajinikanth Arun Prasad Movies 1978
Dharmayuddham R.C.Sakthi Rajinikanth Charu Chitra Films 1979
Varumaiyin Niram Sivappu K.Balachander Kamalhaasan Premalaya 1980
Kaali I.V.Sasi Rajinikanth Hem-Nag Films 1980
Naan Potta Savaal Puratchidasan Rajinikanth Ganga Saranga Films 1980
Polladhavan V. Srinivasan Rajinikanth Vidhya Movies 1980
Murattukkalai S.P.Muthuraman Rajinikanth AVM Productions 1980
Nizhalgal Bharathirajaa Ravi Manoj Creations 1980
Thee R.Krishnamoorthy Rajinikanth Suresh Arts 1981
Garjanai C.V.Rajendran Rajinikanth Hem-Nag Films 1981
Sattam Oru Iruttarai S.A.Chandrasekar Vijayakanth Vadalooran Combines 1981
Parvayin Marupakkam K.M.Balakrishnan Vijayakanth Kanmani Creations 1981
Sivappu Malli Ramanarayanan Vijayakanth Bala Subramanian & Co. 1981
Ezhavathu Manithan K.Hariharan Raghuvaran Lata Creations 1982
Kann Sivanthal Mann Sivakum Sridhar Rajan Rajesh Cine India 1982
Thanikaattu Rajah V.C.Guhanathan Rajinikanth Suresh Productions 1982
Moondru Mugam A.Jagannathan Rajinikanth Sathya Movies 1982
Sivantha Kangal Ramanarayanan Vijayakanth Umakannu Creations 1982
Paayum Puli S.P.Muthuraman Rajinikanth AVM Productions 1983
Sivappu Sooriyan V.Srinivasan Rajinikanth Muktha Films 1983
Malaiyur Mambattiyan Rajasekar Thiagarajan SriDevi Bahavathi Films 1983
Naan Mahan Alla S.P.Muthuraman Rajinikanth Kavithalayaa 1984
Vetri S.A.Chandrasekar Vijayakanth P.S.V. Films 1984
Theerpu En Kaiyil V.P.Sunder Vijayakanth Manjunatha Cine Creations 1984
Sathyam Neeye P.Madhavan Vijayakanth Kanmani Creations 1984
Oru Kaidhiyin Diary Bharathirajaa Kamalhaasan Janani Art Creations 1985
Mangamma Sabadham K.Vijayan Kamalhaasan Suresh Arts 1985
Pagal Nilavu Mani Ratnam Murali Madras Talkies 1985
Naan Sigappu Manithan S.A.Chandrasekar Rajinikanth Lakshmi Productions 1985
Unn Kannil Neervazhindhal Balu Mahendra Rajinikanth Kalakendra Movies 1985
Neethiyin Marupakkam S.A.Chandrasekar Vijayakanth V.V. Creations 1985
Mr. Bharath S.P.Muthuraman Rajinikanth AVM Productions 1986
Palaivana Rojakkal Manivannan Sathyaraj Poompuhar Production 1986
Oomai Vizhigal R.Aravindraj Vijayakanth Thirai Chirpi 1986
Nayakan Mani Ratnam Kamalhaasan Muktha Films 1987
Oorkkavalan Manobala Rajinikanth Sathya Movies 1987
Manithan S.P.Muthuraman Rajinikanth AVM Productions 1987
Makkal En Pakkam Karthick Raghunath Sathyaraj Suresh Arts 1987
Kadamai Kanniyam Kattuppaadu Santhana Bharathi Sathyaraj Rajkamal Films 1987
Jallikatt Manivannan Sathyaraj Seethalakshmi Films 1987
Sattam Oru Vilaiyattu S.A.Chandrasekar Vijayakanth V.V. Creations 1987
Sathyaa Suresh Krishna Kamalhaasan Rajkamal Films 1988
Kaliyugam K.Subash Prabhu Anandhi Films 1988
Ithu Engal Neethi S.A.Chandrasekar Ravi Lalithanjali Fine Arts 1988
Apoorva Sagodharargal Singeetham S.Rao Kamalhaasan Rajkamal Films 1989
Urimai Geetham R.V.Uthayakumar Prabhu Sivashree Pictures 1989
Siva Ameerjan Rajinikanth Kavithalayaa 1989
Dharmadorai Rajasekhar Rajinikanth Kalaamandhir 1991
Thalapathi Mani Ratnam Rajinikanth GV Films 1991
Annamalai Suresh Krishna Rajinikanth Kavithalayaa 1992
Gentleman S.Shankar Arjun K.T.Kunjumon 1993
Mahanadhi Santhana Bharathi Kamalhaasan Amman Creations 1993
Airport Jhoshi Sathyaraj Madhu Films International 1993
Amaidhi Padai Manivannan Sathyaraj Kavithalayaa 1994
Baashha Suresh Krishna Rajinikanth Sathya Movies 1995
Indian S.Shankar Kamalhaasan Sri Surya Movies 1996

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