Very special thanks to John Greyson, Julia Lesage and Chuck Kleinhans for their generous support and feedback.
1. I think “two-spirited” here is more fitting as “transsexual, or trans-vestite, does not capture the character’s energy and goal. She is not dressing as a woman, she is channeling her dead mother’s, Toula’s, energy both paying homage to her and using said energy as supportive force for her unrepentant, transgressive identity. [return to page 1 of essay]
2. Parmar, 5.
3. See Deborah Hunn’s discussion from pages 114-118.
4. Aquilia, 107.
5. Ibid, 105.
6. See Papanikolaou’s discussion of “New Queer Greece” and Head On’s relationship to New Queer Cinema.
7. Puar’s term for how U.S. gay activism post-9/11, copied the perplexing U.S. conservative rhetoric of scapegoating “the Muslim” and their attitudes towards sex and sexuality as inferior/antithetical to that of the United States.
8. Papanikolaou, 192.
9. Harris, 35.
10. Foucault, 1978, 43.
11. See the first two chapters of Katz’s The Invention of Heterosexuality for a detailed discussion.
12. Ibid., 44.
13. Ibid., 45.
13b. For a more thorough and in depth explanation of this phenomenon, see Thomas Waugh’s final chapter “Law, Science, and Politics” in Hard to Imagine, specifically his discussion of state surveillance in public toilets beginning on page 372. [return to page two of essay]
14. Foucault, 1995, 216.
15. Ibid., 201.
16. Ibid., 214.
17. Butler, 191.
18. Ibid., 190.
19. Taylor, 15.
20. Betsky, 16.
21. Cole, 31.
22. Ibid, 59.
23. Ibid. as quoted in Cole, 59.
24. Ibid., 60.
25. Ibid., 32.
27. Ibid,. 61.
28. Kosofsky-Sedgwick, 3.
29. Waugh, 2004, 131.
30. Bennett, 64-65.
31. Waugh, 1993, 151.
32. Bennett, 73.
33. Waugh, 2004, 133.
35. Hunn, 124.
36. Butler, 190.
37. See the first chapter of Dyer’s White for a look at the historical construction of white skin as a signifier of particular ideologies.
38. Ibid., 14.
39. Hall, 394.
40. A sentiment also noted by Julianne Pidduck. See pg 282 of her concluding chapter in Richard Dyer’s “Now You See It.”
41. On page 192, Papanikolaou has argues that the “house, cafes, bars, Greek kafenia” often have characters
42. Binnie, 82.
43. Bennett, 74.
44. Bennett, 74.
45. Nacify, 589.
46. Hennessy, 32.
47. In the South Park episode “South Park Is Gay!” “metrosexuality,” a style of dress influenced by gay culture (which is itself influenced by European design (see Shaun Cole’s 5th chapter “Tight Trousers: Italian Styling in the 1960s”), has de-masculinized the men of South Park, infuriating Mr. Garrison, who blames the television Queer Eye for the Straight Guy. The episode is critical of how gay culture has been appropriated into the capitalist machine, whereby queer style has been emptied of all its meaning and cultural significance, and packaged and sold by multi-national conglomerates as vacuous products, destroying a part of queer culture.
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