1. My thanks go to Ellen Seiter, Tom Kemper, and Emily Hagenmaier for their thoughtful comments and support in the writing and revising of this paper. I would also like to thank the graduate student organizers of UC Santa Barbara’s Media Fields: Infrastructures Conference; Janet Wasko, Jacob Dittmer, and the other hosts of the University of Oregon’s What Is Film? Conference; and the many others both in academia and the media industries who have helped (and continue to help) in my research on Hollywood studio libraries. [return to text]

2. Edward Jay Epstein, “Hollywood's Profits, Demystified,” Slate Magazine, August 8, 2005 (accessed February 3, 2009)

3. The reported size of the studio libraries varies substantially from one report to another. I have created this chart of my own estimates of library film numbers from aggregating data from a number of sources, including corporate annual reports, Los Angeles Times, New York Times, Wall Street Journal, and other publications.  This chart does not include television content, which is an important source of library revenue. I am currently working on obtaining better numbers on the thousands of hours of TV programming owned by the major Hollywood studios.

4. Jessica Litman describes the historical role of the media industries in drafting copyright legislation in Digital Copyright (New York: Prometheus Books, 2006), 35 -69.

5. DVD estimates by the Digital Entertainment Group and cited in Nat Worden, “Wal-Mart Scales Back DVD Displays,” Wall Street Journal, October 5, 2009, B2; Chris Anderson, The Long Tail: Why the Future of Business is Selling Less of More (New York: Hyperion, 2006).

6. Lucas Hilderbrand, Inherent Vice: Bootleg Histories of Videotape and Copyright (Durham and London, Duke University Press, 2009), 3 -25.

7. Sarah McBride, “Hollywood Watches to See if 3-D Reissue of ‘Toy Story’ Takes Flight,” Wall Street Journal, October 5, 2009, B1.

8. David S. Cohen, “Goggles Galore: The Studios Have a New 3-D Vision: Their Film Libraries,” Weekly Variety, April 6 -12, 2009.

9. Charles R. Acland, “Tampering with the Inventory: Colorization and Popular Histories,” Wide Angle 12.2. (April 1990):12 -20. Gary R. Edgerton, “‘The Germans Wore Gray, You Wore Blue’: Frank Capra, Casablanca, and the Colorization Controversy of the 1980s,” Journal of Popular Film & Television 27.4 (Winter 2000): 24 -32 .

10. Germain Lussier, “The Future of 3D Filmmaking,” Making the Movie, June 29, 2009 (accessed December 28, 2009)
Renee Montagne, “Is 2009 the Year 3D Finally Catches on Big? ” NPR.org, June 24, 2009 (accessed December 28, 2009).

11. Matt DeJohn et al, “Styles and Degrees of 3D Dimensionalization: A Framework for Understanding the Directorial control Offered by Dimensionalization of 2D into 3D Films,” In-Three White Paper (accessed December 28, 2009)
 www.in-three.com/downloads/style_degree_wp.pdf .

12. Amol Sharma, “Indian Giant Forms 3-D Partnership,” Wall Street Journal, December 7, 2009, B3. Nitin Govil discusses Hollywood’s outsourcing of visual effects to India in “Hollywood Effects, Bollywood FX,” Contracting Out Hollywood: Runaway Productions and Foreign Location Shooting, eds. Greg Elmer and Mike Gasher ((Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc., 2005), 92 -114.

13. Chris Morris, “Have Film Libraries Found a ‘Hero,’” Weekly Variety, June 29, 2009, 12.

14. Yoostar, “Terms of Use,” (accessed December 28, 2009)
 http://www.yoostar.com/terms.html .

15. Meg James, “MGM Looks Back as TV Goes Digital,” Los Angeles Times, June 15, 2009, B1.

16. Jo Lee Ferguson, “Watch ‘ThisTV’ on cable, with an antenna,” Longview News-Journal,” February 6, 2010 (accessed February 23, 2010).

17. Peter Bart describes MGM’s turmoil in 1970s and 1980s in Fade Out: The Calamitous Final Days of MGM (New York: Doubleday, 1990).  

18. Brooks Barnes, “Burdened by Billions in Debt, MGM Puts Itself Up for Sale,” New York Times, November 14, 2009 (accessed December 29, 2009)
Dave McNary, Variety.com, November 24, 2009 (accessed December 29, 2009).

19. Jan-Christopher Horak, personal conversation.

20. William M. Kunz, Culture Conglomerates: Consolidation in the Motion Picture and Television Industries (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2007), 47;
Comcast, Press Release, September 23, 2004, (accessed October 29, 2009).

21. Claudia Eller, “MGM passes audit, says it’s in ‘full compliance’ with debt requirements,” Los Angeles Times, July 16, 2009 (accessed October 20, 2009).

22. Epstein.

23. Lionsgate, Annual Report—Fiscal Year 2009, August 17, 2009, (accessed October 30, 2009).

24. Claudia Eller, “The Studio, Facing Head Winds, is Struggling to Change Course,” Los Angeles Times, December 4, 2009, B1.

25. BBC News, “Comcast and NBC Form Media Giant,” December 3, 2009 (accessed December 28, 2009).

26. Andrew Jay Schwartzman, “A Threat to the Public Interest,” New York Times, Room for Debate Blog, December 9, 2009 (accessed December 29, 2009).

27. Joe Flint, “Comcast-NBC Deal Raises Concerns About Media Consolidation,” Los Angeles Times, December 4, 2009 (accessed December 28, 2009).

28. Nat Worden and Sam Schechner, “Comcast Rolls Out Internet-TV Service,” Wall Street Journal, December 16, 2009, B4.

29. Christopher Rosen, “The Dawn of Convenience,” New York Times, Room for Debate Blog, December 9, 2009 (accessed December 29, 2009)

30. Kristin Thompson, “The Celestial Multiplex,” David Bordwell’s Website on Cinema, March 27, 2007 (accessed December 29, 2009).
http://www.davidbordwell.net/blog/?p=595 .

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