1. Morris, Catherine. The Essential Cindy Sherman. New York: Harry Abrams, Inc., 2001. 104. [return to essay]
2. Miramax had no idea what to do with it, its release was limited to say the least, and the domestic gross was only $37,446.
3. Roberta Smith, in her review of Office Killer for the New York Times, November 30, 1997, writes: “To people familiar with her career as an artist, Office Killer is a fascinating if lumpish bit of Shermaniana, especially when considered in conjunction with the Los Angeles retrospective.”
4. Fuku, Noriko. “A Woman of Parts,” Art in America 85 (June 1997). 74.
5. A typical Sherman criticism: “The lure of voyeurism turns around like a trap, and the viewer ends up aware that Sherman, the artist, has set up a machine for making the gaze materialize uncomfortably in alliance with Sherman, the model.” Laura Mulvey. “Cosmetics and Abjection.” Cindy Sherman, The October Files. Ed. Johanna Burton. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2007. 69.
6. Smith, Roberta. “A Horror Movie, Complete With Zombies.” New York Times, November 30, 1997.
8. Not only does Melanie Griffith’s character, Tess McGill undergo a “cleaning up” and “feminization” throughout the film, a la Dorine’s similar journey, but her boyfriend cheats on her with a character named Doreen DiMucci. Katharine also tries to befriend Tess in a manner similar to Norah’s attempts at friendship with Dorine. Both brunettes are untrustworthy and ruthless.
9. Also see the Anna Wintour-inspired character from The Devil Wears Prada.
10. Rushdie, Salman. The Wizard of Oz. London: BFI Publishing, 1992. 42.
[return to page 2]
12. Fuku, Noriko. “A Woman of Parts,” Art in America 85 (June 1997). 74.
15. Johanna Burton, “A Body Slate,” Cindy Sherman, The October Files. Ed. Johanna Burton. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2007. 195. [return to page 3]
18. Cindy Sherman Retrospective. New York: Thames and Hudson, 1997. 100.
19. In Borat: Cultural Learnings of America for Make Benefit Glorious Nation of Kazakhstan (2006), Borat, a character played by Sacha Baron Cohen, tries to kidnap Pamela Anderson in a gunny sack to take her back to Eastern Europe to get married. He fails.
20. Fuku, Noriko. “A Woman of Parts,” Art in America 85 (June 1997). 74.
21. De Man, Paul. The Rhetoric of Romanticism. New York: Columbia University Press. 208.
22. Johnny Mnemonic tells the tale of a man, played by Keanu Reeves, who delivers information that has been downloaded into his brain. His memory has been “augmented” to provide him with more than twice the normal gigabytes of the ordinary individual. In his book on The Matrix, Joshua Clover emphasizes the significance of the fact that Johnny “has no conscious access to the digital data he carries; he’s perfectly alienated labor of the digital era.” The film deals with both the alienation enacted by technological advances and the interconnectedness the internet provides, an interconnectedness based on isolation, which Johnny makes literal when he dons gloves and a mask to enter, literally, cyberspace, a touchable environment complete with animated “physical” objects with which he interacts, all while he is fundamentally alone and disengaged. Clover, Joshua. The Matrix. London: British Film Institute, 2004. 21
23. His fashion editorial and advertising was published principally in French Vogue from the mid-1950s through to the late 1980s, where it had its greatest impact in the decade of the 1970s.
Office Killer credits
(in alphabetical order)
Todd Haynes, additional dialogue (uncredited)
Tom Kalin, writer
Elise MacAdam, writer
Cindy Sherman, story
Original Music by
Russell Lee Fine
Film Editing by
Production Design by
Art Direction by
Set Decoration by
Amy Beth Silver
Costume Design by
Hair and Makeup by
Blair Breard, unit production manager
John J. Leonard, post-production supervisor
Second Unit Director or Assistant Director
Cindy Craig, second assistant director
Jude Gorjanc, first assistant director
Victoria Robinson, second second assistant director
Andrea Stanley, construction coordinator
Evan T. Chen, assistant sound editor
Neil Danziger, sound mixer
Mick Gormany, sound editor
George A. Lara, foley mixer
Adam Lerner, apprentice sound editor
Jennifer Martinez, boom operator
Sylvia Menno, sound editor
David Novack, sound re-recording mixer
Eliza Paley, sound
Paul P. Soucek, co-supervising sound editor
Brian Vancho, foley artist
Myron I. Kerstein, assistant editor
Jessica Levin, assistant editor
Yvette Mattern, assistant editor
Hilary Peabody, assistant editor (as Hillary Peabody)
Nelson Ryland, assistant editor (as Hillary Peabody)
Damon Skinner, assistant editor (as Hillary Peabody)
Patricia Sztaba, negative matcher
Stan Sztaba, negative matcher
Randall Poster, music supervisor
Andy Clark, location manager
John J. Leonard, production coordinator
Sandra Isabelle Muller, script supervisor
Gayle Vangrofsky, assistant location manager
Marlene McCarty, title designer (uncredited)
Special Effects by
Rob Benevides, special effects makeup
Drew Jiritano, special effects coordinator
Rodney Sterbenz, special effects makeup assistant
Victor Chan, stunts
John Copeman, stunts
David S. Lomax, stunts (as David Lomax)
Steve Mack, stunts
David Shumbris, stunts
Manny Siverio, stunts
Camera and Electrical Department
Lloyd Handwerker, assistant camera
Teri Kennedy, second second assistant camera
Kristy Tully, gaffer
Costume and Wardrobe Department
Lisa Dorr, wardrobe assistant
Andrea Swistak, wardrobe supervisor
Mrs. Gary Michaels
Young Carlotta Douglas
Jimmy the Homeless Man
Linda, Girl Scout #1
Cleopatra St. John
Girl Scout #2
Paramedic #1 (as Timothy D. Stickney)
Young Dorine Douglas (uncredited)
John D. Bair
Office Delivery Man (uncredited)
Peter Douglas (uncredited)
*Texts which contain a discussion of Office Killer.
Avgikos, Jan. “Cindy Sherman, Metro Pictures.”
ArtForum, September 2004.
Burton, Johanna, ed. Cindy Sherman, The October Files.
Cambridge: MIT Press, 2007.
Cindy Sherman. Basel, Switzerland: Kunsthalle; Munich, Germany:
Staatsgalerie moderner Kunst; London, England: Whitechapel Art Gallery.
Cindy Sherman. London, England: Serpentine Gallery, 2003
Cindy Sherman. New York, New York:
Whitney Museum of American Art, 1987.
*“Cindy Sherman: Office Killer.”
50th Locarno International Film Festival, August 1997
Cindy Sherman Retrospective. New York:
Thames and Hudson, 1997.
Cindy Sherman: Transformations. Dir. Paul Tschinkel.
New York Inner-Tube Video, 2002.
Cindy Sherman: Working Girl. St. Louis, Missouri:
Contemporary Art Museum St. Louis, 2005.
Clover, Joshua. The Matrix. London: British Film Institute, 2004.
De Man, Paul. The Rhetoric of Romanticism.
New York: Columbia University Press.
Derry, Charles. Dark Dreams. Cranbury:
A.S. Barnes and Co., Inc. 1977.
Foster, Jennifer Ann. “Hiding Out Beauty: A Study of Making Horror.”
Master’s Thesis, Art Center, 1999.
*Frankel, David. “Cindy Sherman Talks to David Frankel.”
ArtForum, March 2003.
Friedman, Martin. Close Reading: Chuck Close and the
Artist Portrait. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 2005.
Fuchs, Dale. “Cubicle Culture.” In-Forum. 14 Sept. 1997
*Fuku, Noriko. “A Woman of Parts,” Art in America 85 (June 1997).
*Geffner, David. “First Things First.” Filmmaker Magazine, Fall 1997
Koestenbaum, Wayne. “Fall Gals.” ArtForum, September 2000.
Krauss, Rosalind. Cindy Sherman, 1975-1993.
New York: Rizzoli Press, 1993.
Morris, Catherine. The Essential Cindy Sherman.
New York: Harry Abrams, Inc., 2001.
Nobody’s Here But Me: Cindy Sherman. Dir. Mark Stokes.
Arena and Cinecontact Production for BBC and the
Arts Council of Great Britain. BBC2. 1994.
*Plagens, Peter. “The Odd Allure Of Movies Never Made:
"Cindy Sherman's `Film Stills' Will Make A Neat Exhibition.
Her Flick Is Another Story.” Newsweek Jun 30, 1997.
*Rickels, Laurence A. “American Psychos: The End of
Art Cinema in the 90s.” Art/Text Jan. 2000.
Rushdie, Salman. The Wizard of Oz. London: BFI Publishing, 1992.
Seltzer, Mark. Serial Killers. New York: Routledge, 2003.
Smith, Brook. “The State of the Desk.”
Ryerson Review of Journalism. March 2000.
*Smith, Roberta. “A Horror Movie, Complete With Zombies.”
New York Times, November 30, 1997.
*Tompkins, Calvin. “Her Secret Identities.”
The New Yorker, May 15, 2000.
The Hasselblad Award 1999: Cindy Sherman.
Goeteberg, Sweden: Hasselblad Center, 2000.
Waller, Gregory, ed. American Horrors.
Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1987.
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