1. J. Hoberman, “Errol Morris Lets Torturers Off Easy,” The Village Voice, April 22, 2008. [return to page 1 of essay]

2. Richard Schickel, “Standard Operating Procedure: Too Much Style?” Time, April 24, 2008.

3. Bill Nichols, “The Voice of Documentary,” Film Quarterly 36.3 (Spring 1983): 17-30; see also Charles Wolfe’s thoughtful elaboration in “Historicizing the ‘Voice of God’: The Place of Voice-Over Commentary in Classical Documentary,” Film History 9, no. 2 (1997): 149-167.

4. Didier Fassin and Richard Rechtman, The Empire of Trauma: An Inquiry into the Condition of Victimhood, trans. Rachel Gomme (Princeton: Princeton UP, 2009), 93.

5. See, for instance, Stephen Prince, Firestorm: American Film in the Age of Terrorism (New York: Columbia UP, 2009); Philip Wegner, Life Between Two Deaths, 1989-2001: U.S. Culture in the Long Nineties (Durham, NC: Duke UP, 2009), E. Ann Kaplan and Ban Wang, eds., Trauma and Cinema: Cross-Cultural Explorations (Hong Kong: Hong Kong UP, 2009); and the introduction to Janet Walker’s Trauma Cinema: Documenting Incest and the Holocaust (Berkeley: U of California P, 2005), which locates her study in the time after the September 11th attacks, although the book touches on these events only in its final pages.

6. Julia Lesage, “Torture Documentaries,” Jump Cut: A Review of Contemporary Media 51,

7. Paul de Man, “Excuses (Confessions),” in Allegories of Reading: Figural Language in Nietzsche, Rilke, and Proust (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1979), 279.

8. de Man, “Excuses (Confessions)”, 280.

9. Roy R. Grinker and John P. Spiegel, War Neuroses in North Africa (Prepared for the Air Surgeon Army Air Forces by the Josiah Macy, Jr. Foundation, September 1943), 153.

11. De Man, “Excuses (Confessions),” 279.

12. De Man, “Excuses (Confessions),” 280.

13. Robert Sklar, review of Taxi to the Dark Side/Standard Operating Procedure, Cineaste 33.3 (Summer 2008): 52.

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