1. For instance, the director Fernando León’s proposal for Barrio (1998) simply took the form of a letter where he scribbled just a brief outline of the film (Ponga, 2002: 39) [return to page 1]
2. Eceiza moved to Madrid in 1957, where he enrolled at the national film school, the Institute of Cinematographic Research and Practice (Instituto de Investigaciones y Experiencias Cinematográficas) and began collaborating for the film journals Film ideal and Nuestro cine/ Our Cinema. Querejeta followed his friend to the capital in 1960, where he would find work at the polemical left-wring production company UNINCI. Despite not enrolling at the film school, Querejeta would make invaluable contacts with Eceiza’s fellow graduate, who would soon make up the collaborative team for their first production together.
3. According to Hernández Les, all references had to be omitted to the bloody and divisive Spanish Civil War (1936-1939), during which Franco seized control of Spain (1986: 161).
4. Known in Spanish as “los años de desarrollo,” Spain’s industrial growth during this period was almost unparalleled in the Western world—only Japan would boast a higher rate (Harrison and Corkhill, 1995: 76)
5. As Riquer I. Permanyer shows, Madrid alone grew by two million during this period (1995: 263).
6. In 1966, the producer argued in defence: “I try to fight against the system by using its own arms” (Monleón, 1966: 6).
7. Because of censorship, any mention in the script of the polemical Civil War had to modified to just “the war” (D’Lugo, 1991: 56; Hernández Les, 1986: 164).
8. Geraldine Chaplin, daughter of Charlie, met Carlos Saura during the film premiere of Dr Zhivago (David Lean, 1965). Saura and Chaplin swiftly became lovers, and had a son together in 1974. Chaplin first made her appearance in Saura’s films in Peppermint Frappé (1967), and went on to star in a further eight Saura/Querejeta collaborations. During the 1960s and 1970s, Querejeta always supported the appearances of foreign actors in his productions, as they served to widen the appeal of his films outside of Spain. [return to page 2]
9. This style of lighting was made possible through the following techniques: the use of more sensitive, faster to develop film stock which produced darker images (Barroso, 1989: 240); a reliance on natural lighting when filming inside buildings (Barroso, 1989: 246) and a preference for filming at dawn and dusk, a time which the Cuadrado would affectionately call “the witching hour” (“la hora bruja”) (Barroso, 1989: 244). Having received his professional training from Cuadrado, Escamilla took over from his colleague as director of photography two weeks before the end of filming Pascual Duarte, as the latter had to be rushed to hospital for an operation on his eyes (Heredero, 1994: 248). In the several productions that followed, most notably in The disenchantment/El desencanto, Cría cuervos and Elisa, vida mía, his style of photography remains practically the same as that of Cuadrado. Escamilla has commented that Cuadrado had indelible influence on his cinematography (Heredero, 1994: 248). However, in later films such as El amor brujo (Carlos Saura, 1986), which were not part of “la factoría Querejeta,” Escamilla appears to find his own style of photography, experimenting with more artificial-looking high-key lighting.
10. She also appeared in Saura/Querejeta collaborations Ana y los lobos/ Ana and the Wolves (1972) and Mamá cumple cien años/ Mama Is One Hundred Years Old (1979), in which she plays an English au pair who comes to work for a bourgeois family in an isolated country house in Torrelodones, Castile. Presided over by the senile and infirm Mamá (Rafaela Aparicio), who symbolises the rapidly ageing dictator, the house is presented as a microcosm for Francoist Spain. This symbolism of the Spanish home can be seen in the most famous Saura/Querejeta collaboration Cría cuervos/ Raise Ravens (1976), which also starred Chaplin. Although set within Madrid, the gloomy low-key lighting and camerawork focus our attention on the sheer scale and consistency of the home, and huge mahogany furniture and high ceilings create an architecture of oppression. In addition to these, she also appeared in Saura’s earlier Stress es tres, tres/ Stress Is Three, Three (1967),whose protagonist Fernando (Fernando Cebrián), becomes violently jealous as the characters travel through the Castilian landscape. Saura has commented that the violence in the film appears to irrupt from the surrounding landscape (Brasó, 1974: 213).
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