1. Perhaps the most influential discussion of crowdsourcing comes from Clay Shirky, who discussed how talented innovators have used social media to tap into the wisdom of crowds. Shirky cites examples ranging from a man finding his iPhone using social media to varied forms of citizen journalism to argue that people are organizing, often for powerful political purposes. See Clay Shirky, Here Comes Everybody: The Power of Organizing without Organizations (New York: Penguin, 2008). [return to page 1 of essay]

2. See, for example, Larry Daressa, “The Political Film and its Audience in the Digital Age: Newsreel at Forty and Zero,” California Newsreel, 10 May 2008

[return to page 2 of essay]

3. For a discussion of this history see Paper Tiger Television History

4. It’s worth noting that Michelle Rhee was discredited soon after the film was released when it was reveled that some of the improved testing results she cited had in fact been discredited. See Jack Gillum, “When standardized test scores soared in D.C., were the gains real?,” USA Today, March 30, 2011

5. See Stand for Children, accessed May 17, 2011.

6. Michael Cieply, “A Digital Niche for Indie Film,” The New York Times, January 16, 2011

7. See “Crowdfunding FAQ,” Spanner Films, accessed May 18, 2011

[return to page 3 of essay]

8. All box office numbers are taken from Box Office Mojo

9. See, for example, the affirmative review of Expelled at Christian Film News,


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