1. Seminal works on disability stereotypes that establish their long history in literature and film include Leonard Kriegel’s “The Cripple in Literature” (1987) and Paul K. Longmore’s “Screening Stereotypes: Images of Disabled People in Television and Film” (1987). [return to page 1 of essay]
2. For a greater clarification of the “medical model,” see Simi Linton’s Claiming Disability: Knowledge and Identity, 1-70.
Avatar. Dir. James Cameron. Perf. Sam Worthington, Zoe Saldana, Stephen Lang, Sigourney Weaver. Twentieth-Century Fox, December 2009. DVD.
Bazell, Robert. “The Signature Wound of the Iraq War.” The Daily Nightly. April 26, 2006. Dailynightly.msnbc.com.
Best Years of Our Lives. Dir. William Wyler. Perf. Fredric March, Dana Andews, Myrna Loy. Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer. 1946. DVD.
Bullfinch, Thomas. “Chapter II: Prometheus and Pandora.” Bullfinch’s Mythology: The Age of Fable. http://www.sacred-texts.com/cla/bulf/bulf01.htm.
Cooper, Anderson. “The Iraq War’s Signature Injury.” Anderson Cooper 360 Blog. Monday, November 13, 2006. www.cnn.com.
Davidson, Michael. “Phantom Limbs: Film Noir and the Disabled Body.” The Problem Body: Projecting Disability on Film. Eds. Sally Chivers and Nicole Markotic. Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 2010. 43-64.
Deleuze, Gilles. Negotiations 1972-1990. Trans. Martin Joughin. New York: Columbia University Press, 1995.
Dykes, Brett Michael. “Does Avatar Contain Hidden Messages?” Yahoo Holiday Movie Guide. December 23rd, 2009. www.Yahoo.com.
Flaxman, Gregory. “Introduction.” The Brain is the Screen: Deleuze and the Philosophy Of Cinema. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2000. 1-57.
Garland-Thomson, Rosemarie. “The Politics of Staring: Visual Rhetorics of Disability. In Popular Photography.” Disability Studies: Enabling the Humanities. Eds. Sharon L. Snyder, et al. New York: MLA, 2002. 56-75.
Kaplan, E. Ann. “Is the Gaze Male?” Feminism and Film. Ed. E. Ann Kaplan. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997. 119-38.
Kriegel, Leonard. “The Cripple in Literature.” Images of the Disabled, Disabling Images. Eds. Alan Gartner and Tom Joe. New York: Praeger, 1987. 31-46.
Linton, Simi. Claiming Disability: Knowledge and Identity. New York: New York University Press, 1998.
Longmore, Paul K. “Screening Stereotypes: Images of Disabled People in Television and Motion Pictures.” Images of the Disabled, Disabling Images. Eds. Alan Gartner and Tom Joe. New York: Praeger, 1987. 65-78.
Men, The. Dir. Fred Zinnemann. Perf. Marlon Brando, Teresa Wright. Stanley Kramer Productions, September 1950. DVD.
Nelson, Jack A. “Broken Images: Portrayals of Those with Disabilities in American Media.” The Disabled, The Media, and the Information Age. Ed. Jack A. Nelson. Westport: Greenwood Press, 1994.
Norden, Martin F. The Cinema of Isolation: A History of Physical Disabilities in The Movies. New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, 1994.
Okie, Susan. “Traumatic Brain Injury in the War Zone.” The New England Journal of Medicine, Volume 352, Number 20. May 19, 2005. http:content.nejm.org. http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMp058102?hits
Restivo, Angelo. “Into the Breach: Between the Movement-Image and the Time-Image.” The Brain is the Screen: Deleuze and the Philosophy of Cinema. Ed. Gregory Flaxman. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2000. 171-192.
Robertson, Jordan. “Iraq War’s Signature Wound: Brain Injury.” The Washington Post. Friday, September 15th, 2006.
Siebers, Tobin. “Tender Organs, Narcissism, and Identity Politics.” Disability Studies: Enabling the Humanities. Eds. Sharon L. Snyder, et al. New York: MLA, 2002. 40-55.
Snyder, Sharon L. and David T. Mitchell. “Body Genres: An Anatomy of Disability in Film.” The Problem Body: Projecting Disability on Film. Eds. Sally Chivers and Nicole Markotic. Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 2010. 179-204.
Zaroya, Gregg. “360,000 Veterans May Have Brain Injuries.” USA Today. March 5, 2009. www.usatoday.com.