1. Jameson, Frederic, The Geopolitical Aesthetics (Indiana University Press: Bloomington, 1992), 88. [return to page 1 of essay]

2. “Szájtépés filmszakadásig,” Roundtable Discussion on Contemporary Hungarian Cinema. Budapest, Hungary, June 3-4 2001.

3. A quick glance at the reviews collected on Rottentomatoes.com shows the general tone of criticism on the film. [cited November 20 2007]

4. Boym, Svetlana (2001) The Future of Nostalgia. New York: Basic Books.

5. For example Szép napok (Mundruczó Kornél, 2002), Fehér tenyér (Hajdú Szabolcs, 2006).

6. This tradition relies most importantly on Foucault’s work on power and subjectivity in The History of Sexuality (London: Verso, 1990);Judith Butler’s influential notion of performativity explains gender identity as
a social construction that manifests itself through constant repetition of gender norms, see Bodies that Matter (New York: Routledge, 1993).

7. Connerton, Paul (1989) How Societies Remember. Cambridge University Press.

8. Connerton, 34.

9. Connerton, 37.

10. Connerton, 88.

11. Jameson, Frederic (1981) The Political Unconscious. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. 48.

12. The Political Unconscious, 60.

13. Lefebvre, Henri (1991) Critique of Everyday Life I. London, Verso. p. 202. [return to page 2]

14. Critique of Everyday Life I, 207.

15. Originally he develops the notion of the festival based on sociological observations he made in secluded Pyrenean communities.

16. Connerton, 101.

17. In this sense the film almost invites an interpretation along Kristeva’s theory on abjection Kristeva, Julia (1982) Powers of Horror: An Essay on Abjection. Columbia University Press. In my reading, however, I am more concerned with the social construction of identity and memory.

18. Jameson, Frederic (1988) The Ideologies of Theory, Essays 1971-1986. University of Minneapolis Press. 1466.

19. Lefebvre, Henri (1971) Everyday Life in the Modern World. Harmandsworth: Allen Lane. 204.

20. Everyday Life in the Modern World, 36-37.

21. Baudrillard, Jean (1988 ) ‘Simulacra and Simulations‘ in. Selected Writings, ed. Mark Poster. Stanford University Press. 166-184. [return to page 3]

22. Baudrillard “Simulacra and Simulations,” 172.

23. Niedermüller Péter, “The dilemmas of modernization” ÉS, 51, 29. [in Hungarian, translated by author]

24. This romanticized notion of national identity is related to another typically East European phenomenon, which is not an integral part of the collective memory. As Niedermüller points out, the three phases in the history of the 20th century Hungary (monarchist feudalism, Socialism, contemporary capitalism) have followed each other too soon: their boundaries are blurry, they overlap. (“The dilemmas of modernization.”) In the three episodes of the film, the characters are trying to work out similar problems (social mediation, relevance of objects, sexuality) to which they do not find the solutions. One could say that the mythologies of these different political systems did not organically grow out of the social-cultural progress.

25. Adorno, Theodor W. (1982) Aesthetic Theory. London: Routledge. 323-324.

26. Adorno, Aesthetic Theory, 257-260.

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