1. Clover, Carol J. Men, Women, and Chain Saws: Gender in the Modern Horror Film: (Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP, 1992), pg. 35. [return to text]

2.   Ibid., Clover.

3. Benshoff, Harry M. Monsters in the Closet: Homosexuality and the Horror Film. Manchester: Manchester University 1997).

4. Ibid., Benshoff, pg. 5.

5. Friday the 13th. Dir: Sean S. Cunningham. Paramount. 1980.

6. Happy Birthday to Me. Dir: J. Lee Thompson. Columbia. 1981.

7. Jeepers Creepers 2. Dir: Victor Salva. United Artists. 2003.

8. Jeepers Creepers. Dir: Victor Salva. United Artists. 2001.

9. Ibid., Clover, pg. 21.

10. Wood, Robin. Hollywood from Vietnam to Reagan: (New York, NY: Columbia UP, 1986), pg. 75.

11. Worland, Rick. Chapter 10 “Halloween (1978): The Shape of the Slasher Film” in The Horror Film: An Introduction: (Malden, MA: Blackwell 2007), pg. 227.

12. Rockoff, Adam. “What Is a Slasher Film?” in Going to Pieces: The Rise and Fall of the Slasher Film, 1978 to 1986: (Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company, Inc. 2002), pg. 5-6.

13. Nightmare on Elm Street. Dir: Wes Craven. New Line Cinema. 1984.

14. Ibid., Clover, pg. 30.

15. Ibid., Rockoff, pg. 10.

16. Ibid., Rockoff, pg. 10.

17. Ibid., Clover, pg. 31.

18. Ibid., Clover, pg. 39.

19. Ibid., Worland, pg. 229.

20. Ibid., Clover.

21. Ibid., Benshoff.

22. Ibid., Clover, pg. 29.

23. Clarke, Victoria; Soja J. Ellis; Elizabeth Peel; and Damien W. Riggs. “Prejudice and Discrimination” in Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Queer Psychology: An Introduction: (Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University 2010), pg. 120.

24. Ibid., Benshoff, pg. 3.

25. Mulvey, Laura. “Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema” in Media and Cultural Studies: Key Works. Durham, Meenakshi Gigi and Douglas M. Kellner (Eds.): (Malden, MA: Blackwell 2006), pg. 346. 

26. Sedgwick, Eve Kosofsky. Epistemology of the Closet: (London, England: University of California 2008), pg. 9.

27. Ibid., Jeepers Creepers 2.

28. This could be reflective of the Algonquian folklore regarding the Windigo/Wendigo. See Wonderley’s At the Front of the Marvelous (2009) for more detailed interpretations of the folkloric Windigo narratives.

29. Ibid., Benshoff, pg. 240.

30. Ibid., Sedgwick, pg. 136.

31. Ibid., Clover, pg. 35.

32. Sedgwick, Eve Kosofsky. Between Men: English Literature and Male Homosocial Desire. (New York, NY: Columbia University 1985), pg. 2.

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