1. See, for example, Garrett Stewart’s Framed Time: Toward a Postfilmic Cinema (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007), my own Modular Narratives in Contemporary Cinema (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008), and the essays in Puzzle Films: Complex Storytelling in Contemporary Cinema, ed. Warren Buckland (Malden MA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2009), as well as special issues of the journals Film Criticism (31:1-2, 2006) and The Velvet Light Trap (no. 58, 2006). [return to page 1 of essay]

2. See Mary Ann Doane, The Emergence of Cinematic Time: Modernity, Contingency, the Archive (Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press, 2002), Laura Mulvey, Death 24x a Second: Stillness and the Moving Image (London: Reaktion, 2006), and D.N. Rodowick, The Virtual Life of Film (Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press, 2007).

3. See Gilles Deleuze, Cinema 2: The Time Image (London: Continuum, 2005).

4. See Henri Bergson, Time and Free Will: An Essay on the Immediate Data of Consciousness, trans. F.L. Pogson (London: S. Sonnenschein and Company, 1910).

5. Thomas Elsaesser, “The Mind-Game Film,” in Warren Buckland (ed.), Puzzle Films: Complex Storytelling in Contemporary Cinema (Malden MA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2009), p. 29.

6. Stewart, Framed Time, p. 211.

7. Cameron, Modular Narratives, p. 112.

8. Elsaesser, “The Mind-Game Film,” p. 31.

9. Ibid.

10. See Bergson, Time and Free Will.

11. Stewart, Framed Time, p. 2.

12. See Joseph Frank, The Idea of Spatial Form (New Brunswick and London: Rutgers University Press, 1991), p. 154; and Fredric Jameson, Postmodernism, or, The Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism (London and New York: Verso, 1991), p. 154.

13. John Urry, “Speeding Up and Slowing Down,” in Hartmut Rosa and William E. Scheurman(eds.) High-Speed Society: Social Acceleration, Power, and Modernity (University Park, PA: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 2009), p. 179.

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