JUMP CUT
A REVIEW OF CONTEMPORARY MEDIA

 

 

Notes

A version of this essay was first published in German in Frederick Wiseman, Kino des Sozialen (Ed. Eva Hohenberger, Vorwerk 8, 2009, pp. 139-155).

1.While foregrounding this method of documentary editing, Rabiger warns against relying on the written word entirely “I should warn that using transcripts too literally also has some dangers. It can lead you to place too much emphasis on words and thus to making a speech-driven film.” (2004, 417) [return to page 1]

2. In Invisible Storytellers, Sara Kozloff deems observational documentary films engrossing and engaging because of the absence of voice-over narration. But she stipulates:

“In film, then, while there are major differences between having the camera capture an action and having a narrator describe that action, the ideal of blissful communion between the viewer and some untouched, untainted reality presented by a completely neutral mechanism is an illusion.” (14)

3. During a tour of the facility, the guide indicates that one in three American women is abused during a relationship, and that

“the F.B.I., which is not a feminist organization, statistics suggest that it is more like one in two women will be physically abused.”

[return to page 2]

4. As may be assumed, I rely on Laura Mulvey’s discussion of the male gaze which derives pleasure from objectifying the female body, here.

5. Many studies of post traumatic stress disorder in chronically traumatized people, from victims of prolonged captivity to women effected by domestic violence, speak to the inhibition of emotion. I suggest these for brevity’s sake: Herman 2004 and Elkin, Newman, Carter and Zaslav 1999. [return to page 3]

6. A documentary editor with whom I work calls this sound edit a “Franken-byte.”

Bibliography

Altman, Rick. “Material Heterogeneity of Recorded Sound.” Sound Theory / Sound Practice, New York: Routledge, 1988, 13-31.

Atkins, Thomas R. Frederick Wiseman. New York: Monarch Press: Simon & Shuster, Inc. 1976.

Barbash and Taylor. Cross Cultural Filmmaking A Handbook for Making Documentary and Ethnographic Films and Videos. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997.

Barnouw, Eric. Documentary: A History of the Non-Fiction Film. New York: Oxford University  Press, 1993.

Benson & Anderson Reality Fictions: The Films of Frederick Wiseman. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press 2nd Edition, 2002.

Chapman, Jane. Documentary in Practice: Filmmakers and Production Choices. Cambridge: Polity Press, 2007.

Elkin, G. David, Emily Newman, Cameron S. Carter, and Mark Zaslav. “Post-Traumatic Stress  Disorder.” Introduction to Clinical Psychiatry. Stamford: Appleton & Lange, 1999, 101-112.

Gorbman, Claudia. “Narrative Film Music.” Yale French Studies. No. 60, Cinema/Sound, 1980, 183-203.

Grant, Barry Keith. 5 Films by Frederick Wiseman: Titicut Follies, High School, Welfare, High School II, Public Housing. Berkeley: University of California Press,2006.

Herman, Judith. “From Trauma and Recovery: The Aftermath of Violence from Domestic Violence to Political Terror.” Violence in War and Peace: An Anthology. ed Nancy Scheper-Hughes, Philippe I. Bourgois. Malden: Blackwell Publishing, 2004, 368-371.

Kozloff, Sarah. Invisible Storytellers: Voice-over Narration in American Fiction Film. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988.

Levin, G. Roy. “Frederick Wiseman.” Documentary Explorations. Garden City: Doubleday & Co., Inc., 1971.

Mulvey, Laura. “Visual Pleasure and the Narrative Cinema.” Screen. Vol. 16, No. 3, Summer 1975, 6-18.

Nichols, Bill. Introduction to Documentary. Bloomington: Indiana University Press,2001.

Nichols, Bill. Representing Reality: Issues and Concepts in Documentary. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1991.

Rabiger, Michael. Directing the Documentary: Fourth Edition. Burlington: Focal Press, 2004.

Ruoff, Jeffrey .“Conventions of Sound in Documentary.” Cinema Journal. Vol 32, No. 3, Spring1993, 24-40.

Silverman, Kaja. The Acoustic Mirror: The Female Voice in Psychoanalysis and Cinema.Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1988.

Sjogren, Britta. Into the Vortex: Female Voice and Paradox in Film. Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 2006.

Winston, Brian. Claiming the Real: The Documentary Film Revisited. London: British Film Institute, BFI Publishing, 1995.


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