1. See Starring New York: Filming the Grime and Glamour of the Long 1970s (New York: Oxford University Press, 2011). [return to page 1]
2. See Henri Lefebvre, The Production of Space, trans. David Nicholson-Smith. New York and London: Blackwell, 1991; Neil Smith, The New Urban Frontier: Gentrification and the Revanchist City (London and New York: Routledge, 1996); and David Harvey, Consciousness and the Urban Experience (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1989) for elucidating discussion regarding space as a relative conceptual marker, contingent on history and culture.
3. Lefebvre, The Production of Space, 41-42.
4. See Philip Rosen, Change Mummified: Cinema, Historicity, Theory (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2001), 49-58.
5. This headline appeared in the New York Daily News October 30, 1975.
6. See the website of the Mayor’s Office for Film, Theater and Broadcasting for a full history: http://www.nyc.gov/html/film/html/office/history_moftb.shtml.
7. James Sanders, Celluloid Skyline: New York and the Movies (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2001), 342-4.
8. The figure who argued most persistently and influentially for auteurist approaches to film was Andrew Sarris in his The American Cinema: Directors and Directions, 1929-1968 (New York: E.P. Dutton, 1968) and his later Politics and Cinema (Columbia University Press, 1978).
9. Coppola’s difficulties with his producers, including Robert Evans have taken on the stuff of legend. See, for example, Michael Sragow, “Godfatherhood,” in Francis Ford Coppola Interviews, eds. Gene D. Phillips and Rodney Hill (Oxford: University Press of Mississippi), 167-183.
10. While it is true that films like The Lost Weekend (1945) The Naked City (1948), On the Waterfront (1954), and West Side Story (1961), among others, had employed the streets and buildings of New York City and its environs, they had done so in ways that were quite different from these later films. These earlier New York films offer fairly limited perspectives on the city, due to the difficulty and expense of moving cumbersome equipment from set up to set up.
11. See David Cook,Lost Illusions: American Cinema in the Shadow of Watergate and Vietnam, 1970-1979. (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2003), 355-380; and James Sanders, 341-42.
12. For related discussion that further illuminates my point see Vanessa Schwartz, It’s So French: Hollywood, Paris, and the Making of Cosmopolitan Film Culture (Chicago: U. of Chicago, 2008) particularly chapters 1 and 4.
13. Arguably, this international role for New York City as a cultural capital has its roots in the 1950s, as the city became prominent as a result of the centrality of the U.S. economy in the world system and in contrast to the European capitals that had suffered significant damage as a result of World War II. See the memoir by Dan Wakefield, New York in the 50's, New York: Macmillan, 1999 and Martin Halliwell’s American Culture in The 1950s, Edinbugh: Edinburgh University Press, 2007.
14. See Gerald Sussman, “Urban Congregations of Capital and Communications: Redesigning Social and Spatial Boundaries, “ Social Text 17.3 (1999) 35-51.
15. Clyde Edgerton, The Columbia History of American Television (New York: Columbia University Press,2007), 372.
16. David Cook, 25.
17. My figures come from the IMDB listing of financial data: Network: 23,689,877 (USA); All That Jazz: 20,030,000 (USA); Saturday Night Fever: 74,100,000 (USA); Fame: 21,202,829 (USA) ( 1980): New York, New York: $13,800,000 (USA)
18. The album soundtrack of Easy Rider eventually hit number 6, and some of its titles had a second life on the top 40.
19. Cook 25-65; Thomas Schatz, “The New Hollywood,” eds. Jim Collins, Ava Collins, and Hillary Radner. Film Theory Goes to the Movies (New York: Routledge, 1993), 184-206.
20. See Edgerton, 85-110 and Michael Haupert, The Entertainment Industry (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 2006).
21. Of course, this to some degree explains the propensity of interior shots in films such as Network. However, in other films ostensibly set in New York, the fact that the streets were not of that city, such as Moonstruck, seemed to serve as little impediment to outdoor scenes.
22. John H. Mollenkopf,A Phoenix in the Ashes (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1994), 52.
23. Esser, Josef and Joachim Hirsch. “The Crisis of Fordism and the Dimensions of a 'Post-Fordist' Regional and Urban Structure,” ed. Ash Amin. Post-Fordism: A Reader, New York: Wiley-Blackwell, 1995), 77.
24. Sharon Zukin, Loft Living: Culture and Capital in Urban Change (New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1989), 176.
25. Zukin, 180.
26. Sassen, The Global City: New York, London, Tokyo, 2nd Edition (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2001), 266-7.
27. Moody, From Welfare State to Real Estate (New York: New Press, 2008), 24-61; Mollenkopf, 50-68. See also a contemporary account of this process, Samuel G. Freedman, “Signs of Transformation in Neighborly Greenpoint,” New York Times, October 15, 1986.
28. This film was originally conceived as a location shoot and only morphed in to its ultimate form after many drafts of its screenplay. Scorsese Papers, AFI.
29. The school was subsequently moved up town to Lincoln Center and the structure in this film burned down in 1988. On the site is now the Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis School of International Careers.
30. Traub, The Devil’s Playground (New York: Random House, 2004) 131-150.
31. See Traub, 160-174. 229-30.
32. Sassen, “Whose City is it?” Globalization and the Formation of New Claims.” Lecture at Columbia University, July, 1997.
33. Tino Balio, “A Major Presence in All the World’s Important Markets,” ed. Graeme Turner. The Film Cultures Reader. New York: Routledge, 2001), 206-217.
34. Thomas Schatz, “The New Hollywood,” in The Film Cultures Reader, 189-190, 184-205.
35. Manuel Castells, The Rise of Network Societies (New York: Blackwell, 2000), 424-448.
36. Qtd. In Mike Featherstone and Scott Lash, Spaces of Culture: City, Nation, World (London: Sage, 1999), 59.