7. Bianca Bosker. “Foxconn Factory’s Violations: iPad Factory Workers’ Grievances Detailed in Report.” In The Huffington Post. March 29, 2012. See http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/03/29/

8. Sally Kincaid. “China’s Migrant Women” in Perspective Column. Socialist Review. Jan. 2012. See http://www.socialistreview.org.uk/article.php?articlenumber=11875

9. Arianne Gaetano and Tamara Jacka. On the Move: Women in Rural-to-Urban Migration in Contemporary China. NY: Columbia University Press. p. 2.

10. ibid.

11. I chose films made by filmmakers outside of China because many films critical of China’s migrant situation made by filmmakers inside of China are banned and thus not easily available for study.

12. A third documentary Manufactured Landscape (2006) by Jennifer Baichwal, although not focusing on women migrants, is another important film by a filmmaker outside of China on the subject of modernization. It features Edward Burtynsky’s photo/video journal, mostly shot in China, and captures the landscapes affected by globalization and industrialization.

13. The producer indicated to me after a public screening of the film at Stanford University in 2010 that the cameraperson felt morally obliged to stop his camera during the fight and mediate the family dispute.

14. In the over 400 page China Film Annual Reports 2010, which covers both industrial and art/cultural films made that year, migrant workers were mentioned only tangentially.

15. A similar comment was made by anthropologist Arianne Gaetano. “Rural Woman and Modernity in Globalizing China: Seeing Jia Zhangke's The World” in Visual Anthropology Review
Volume 25, Issue 1, pages 25–39, Spring 2009.

16. Arianne Gaetano and Tamara Jacka. On the Move: Women in Rural-to-Urban Migration in Contemporary China. NY: Columbia University Press, 2004. p. 2.

17. I would even say it is an experimental narrative film as its narrative structure is unconventional in the sense that it is a mixture of a fictional story with a documentary film. The film was shot on digital camera and won the first prize in Vancouver film Festival, 2009 and Hong Kong International Film Festival (digital film section), 2009.

18. Marchetti, Gina. From Tiananmen Square to Times Square: Transnational China and the Chinese Diaspora on Global Screens, 1989-1997. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. 2006. p. 88.

19. Although the film is made a few years after Deng retired from his leadership position, the ethos of his period still lingered on. [return to page 2]

20. See footnote no. 16.

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