1. The FECH (Federación de Estudiantes de la Universidad de Chile) is the oldest student organization in Chile and traditionally the most politically active. The Confech (Confederación de Estudiantes de Chile) is the umbrella organization of the individual student federations of each university. Tolerancia Cero has been running since 1999 on the Chilevisión channel. [return to page 1 of essay]

2. Del Río, 42, a journalist and host of several radio and television programs on major channels, studied at the Universidad Finis Terrae. Paulsen, 55, the “liberal” member of the panel, is also a television journalist, and has worked in the establishment media during and since the Pinochet period, and as a correspondent for Time and The Wall Street Journal. He is also a professor of journalism at the Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez. Villegas, 62, is a sociologist, writer and journalist who has also appeared on many establishment media programs. I will discuss Eichholz’ particular background in the text. Official biographies are found at:

3. For a concise account of the history of economic neoliberalism and its implementation in Chile and elsewhere, see Harvey, David. A Brief History of Neoliberalism. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005.

Piñera, elected president in early 2010, is a billionaire businessman and previously the 100% owner of Chilevisión. After his election he sold the company to an international division of Time Warner Inc. Piñera’s business practices were put under suspicion in late 2010, when a cable was released by Wikileaks in which the U.S. ambassador strongly questioned them as unethical and beyond “the line of what is strictly legal”:

After the high popularity ratings he enjoyed in the wake of the 2010 rescue of 33 miners trapped in a collapsed tunnel, Piñera’s presidential popularity plummeted in an inverse relation to the growth of the student movement, and by September 2011 was just above twenty per cent. Vallejo’s immediate reaction to what Piñera himself announced as the “gran reforma educacional” can be seen in a CNN Chile interview from November 2010:

4. For a press release with the student demands, see:

5. “Hagamos como si tú fueras ministra de educación, y tienes que anunciar una reforma al sistema de educación superior en el país. ¿Cuáles son los ejes que tú…plantearías en esa reforma?”

6. “Hay una falta de rol fiscalizador y rol garante por parte del estado…”

8. For more on the functioning of copyright in the case of YouTube, see YouTomb: http://youtomb.mit.edu/. For more general concerns about the effects of the DMCA see the Chilling Effects website:

9. The most visible student leaders have been Vallejo and the 24-year old Giorgio Jackson, the president of the Federación de Estudiantes de la Universidad Católica de Chile (FEUC) and, like Vallejo, spokesperson of the Confech.

10. See Monckeberg, María Olivia. El negocio de las universidades en Chile. Santiago: Debate, 2007, and an interview that can be found at: http://www.elclarin.cl/index.php?option=com_

11. An excerpt of the section of the Chilean Constitution that regards education can be found at:

12. The Legión de Cristo is a Catholic organization founded in Mexico by Marcial Maciel in the 1930s. It spread over Latin America by evangelizing the economic elites, and now operates worldwide. In many countries it owns and runs schools and universities, including, in Chile, the Universidad Finis Terrae. The president of the Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez, supermarket magnate Nicolás Ibáñez, is also a Legionario de Cristo. Maciel was dogged by accusations of sexual abuse of minors throughout his life, but not until 2005, at 85 years of age, was he sanctioned by the Vatican for his by-then widely known actions. In 2010 the Vatican ordered an worldwide “overhaul” of the Legión de Cristo to “purify” the order. See Wilkinson:
The Vatican also rewrote Maciel’s official epitaph, adding sections that referred to his “seriously and objectively immoral behavior” and his being “devoid of any scruples and authentic sense of religion.” See Godoy:
On the presence of the Legión de Cristo in Chile, see Insunza, Andrea and Javier Ortega. Legionarios de Cristo en Chile: Dios, Dinero y Poder. Santiago: Universidad Diego Portales, 2008, and:

13. On the secondary students, or “pingüinos,” and the student movement, see:

14 García Linera, in addition to serving as Bolivian vice president under Evo Morales, is a much-published sociologist. See

15. Eichholz, Juan Carlos. ¿Hacia dónde te llevan Camila?:

16. Vallejo Dowling, Camila. Blog:
As of December 2011 this blog, where the entry had been originally posted, had been taken down. As of this writing the text may still be found at: http://blogs.cooperativa.cl/opinion/politica/

18. On September 11 Vallejo and Giorgio Jackson appeared on Tolerancia Cero. This time Eichholz was no longer on the panel, having reportedly left for the U.S. to work with professors from Harvard and NYU
(see: http://diario.latercera.com/2011/04/30/01/
This interview was more rancorous than Vallejo’s earlier interview, and frustration was especially evident on the part of Villegas, who repeatedly accused Vallejo and Jackson of using the sacrifice of the nation’s students for personal aggrandizement:

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