JUMP CUT
A REVIEW OF CONTEMPORARY MEDIA

 

 

Notes

1. Though Machete had a fairly average gross of $14,102,888 for an action film its opening weekend, the gross plummeted 62% the next weekend, and 59% the weekend after that, and didn’t stop falling. Box Office Mojo. “Machete.” Box Office Mojo. 15 Nov. 2010. Web. 26 Aug. 2011. [return to page 1]

2. The border film, also known as cine fronterizo, is a Mexican film genre that though historically tied to exploitation cinema has of late been taken up by Hollywood filmmakers in the US such as Cheech Marin’s Born in East LA (1987) and The Three Burials of Melquiades Estrada (Jones, 2005) Though the “border” in Machete I am primarily referencing is the geographical Texas/Mexico borderlands in which the film takes place there certainly are more spiritual, cultural, identity-based, and other Anzaldúa n borders at play in the film.

3. "Jornalero" comes from the word "jornal," which comes from the Latin root "Diurnus," which means "day." A "jornal" is a single day's wage, or correspondingly, the work done for that wage. The idea that goes along with this is that a jornalero works from day-to-day with no security about the next day's work. This virtually guarantees a hand-to-mouth existence. At the same time that this circumstance comes from a disparity in status between worker and employer, the instability that the system generate reinforces and recreates that disparity.

Day work is one of the oldest documented professions. It is mentioned in the Book of Exodus (12:45) in the context of the Passover and the return from Egypt (jornaleros, understood to be 'foreigners,' are not permitted to eat the unleavened bread of the Passover ritual) and again in Leviticus (19:13), when the faithful are enjoined against abusing day laborers. Thus there is a long tradition dating back to Biblical times of both discrimination against (à la Exodus) and requiring justice for jornaleros, and that identity has long been tied up to ingroup/outgroup identities in respect to nationality and borders.

4. Stephen Holden. “Growl, and Let the Severed Heads Fall Where They May.” The New York Times. 2 Sept. 2010. Web. Apr. 2011.

5. The film’s first trailer was a fake trailer which preceded the Grindhouse films, Planet Terror (Rodriguez 2007) and Death Proof (Tarantino, 2007). It wasn’t until later that Rodriguez decided to make Machete feature length.

6. Randal C. Archibold. "Arizona Enacts Stringent Law on Immigration." The New York Times. 23 Apr. 2010: A1. Web. 15 Apr. 2011.

7. Curtis Pendergast. "Narratives in the News: SB 1070 Boycotts." The Sonoran Chronicle. 1 Apr. 2011. Web. 15 Apr. 2011.

8. The Mexico Trilogy or the Mariachi Trilogy follows the character of a Mariachi through three films, El Mariachi, (1992) Desperado (1995), and Once Upon a Time in Mexico (2003).

9. The comeback of the exploitation film can be seen as beginning with Rodriguez and Tarantino’s From Dusk till Dawn (1996) and Tarantino’s Jackie Brown (1997).

10. Rodriguez was surprised to find that audiences and Trejo himself pushed him to make the trailer into a feature length film. Christina Radish, "Robert Rodriguez and Danny Trejo Interview MACHETE." Collider. 29 Aug. 2010. Web. 18 Apr. 2011.

11. Cachadero is a slang term in Spanish for where day laborers “catch” jobs. It could be a corner, a site, a center, or in the case of the film Machete it is just an unmarked area.

12. Jim Gilchrist’s Minuteman Project seeks to secure the US/Mexico border through “volunteers” who “man” the border to prevent border crossers.

13. Anthony Kwame Appiah, "Race." Critical Terms for Literary Study. 2nd ed. Eds. Lentricchia, Frank, and Thomas McLaughlin. Chicago: University of Chicago Press: 1995. Print.

14. Ibid. p. 276

15. Karim Murji, “Race.” New Keywords: A Revised Vocabulary of Culture and Society Eds. Bennett, Tony and Lawrence Grossberg. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing: 2005. Print.

16. Ibid. p. 291

17. Ibid. p. 294

18. The terms Chicano and Chicana have been debated about in terms of if they points to race, ethnicity or nationhood. Rosa Linda Fregoso answers the quandary of “whom to consider for membership into the Chicano nation” by “de-emphasizing the biological claims to authenticity, yet accentuating its political dimension.” Charles Ramírez Berg said the term “implied pride as well as activism and oppositional politics.”

20. Ibid.

21. Karim Murji, “Ethnicity.” New Keywords: A Revised Vocabulary of Culture and Society Eds. Bennett, Tony and Lawrence Grossberg. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing: 2005. Print.

22. Much like the term “raza,” the term “Aztlan” is not always necessarily literal, but is more of a mythological home.

23. Kevin R. Johnson. “Pursuing Equal Justice in the West: Driver’s Licenses and Undocumented Immigrants: The Future of Civil Rights Law?” Nevada Law Journal. Feb 2004.

24. Though the character Machete was first imagined in 1993 when Robert Rodriguez was making Desperado, he never realized the script he had been writing until he made the fake trailer for Grindhouse in 2006. The film Machete was filmed in 2009 and 2010.
Ryan McKee. "The Origins of Machete: How Danny Trejo Went From Convict to Action Hero." Next Movie. Ed. Kevin Polowy, Breanne L. Heldman, and Brooke Tarnoff. N.p., 2 Sept. 2010. Web. 18 Mar. 2011.
Bruce Simmons. "Machete Filming has Wrapped." Brusimm. Ed. Bruce Simmons. N.p., 11 Aug. 2010. Web. 19 Mar. 2011.

25. Raul A. Reyes. "Brisenia Flores Was a Victim of Border Vigilantes and Media Indifference." Huffington Post 8 Mar. 2011. Web. 15 Apr. 2011.
Terry Green Sterling. "U.S. News More U.S. News The Minuteman Vigilante's Arizona Murder Trial." The Daily Beast 26 Jan. 2011. Web. 15 Apr. 2011.

26. Joe Tacopino. "Neo-Nazi groups take up arms in Arizona to combat illegal immigration." NY Daily News 18 July 2010. Web. 15 Apr. 2011.
Sarah Viets. "Neo-Nazi Activities Target Immigrants." Imagine 2050. Ed. Jill Garvey. N.p., 12 Mar. 2010. Web. 15 Apr. 2011.

27. Frank James. “Deportations Higher Under Obama Than Bush.” NPR. 26 July 2010. 2 April 2011. Web.

28. Nicole Santa Cruz.“Arizona bill targeting ethnic studies signed into law” Los Angeles Times. 12 May 2010. 5 April 2011. Web.

29. For more on this see:

  • Cheryl I. Harris. “Whiteness as Property.” Harvard Law Review, Vol. 106, No. 8, p. 1707, 1993; UCLA School of Law Research Paper No. 06-35.
  • Peggy McIntosh. Excerpt from 1988 Working Paper #189, published in Peace and Freedom, July/August 1989; reprinted in Independent School, Winter 1990.
  • bell hooks. "Representing Whiteness in the Black Imagination." Cultural Studies. Eds. Lawrence Grossberg et al. London: Routledge, 1992: 338-342. [return to page 2]

30. Excerpt from McIntosh 1988 Working Paper #189, published in Peace and Freedom, July/August 1989; reprinted in Independent School, Winter 1990.

31. Ibid. 55

32. Ibid. 56

33. Lisa Nakamura. Cybertypes: Race, Ethnicity, and Identity on the Internet. New York: Routledge. 2002. Print.

34. Lisa Nakamura. Digitizing Race:Visual Cultures on the Internet. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. 2008. Print.

35. People who say things solely to start fights or make trouble.

36. A comment by noiretblanc on AICN’s May 5 article. This AICN reader’s other comments on the site are strictly fangirl/boyish.

37. Daniel Bernardi, ed. The Persistence of Whiteness: Race and Contemporary Hollywood Cinema. Abingdon: Routledge. 2008. Print.

38. Sara Ahmed. “Declarations of Whiteness: The Non-Performativity of Anti-Racism.” Borderlands, 3.2. (2004) Web.

40. Nikki Finke. "George Clooney's 'The American' Wins Weekend, Robert Rodriguez's 'Machete' #2, Drew Barrymore's 'Going The Distance' #5." Deadline Hollywood. Ed. Nikki Finke, Mike Fleming, Nellie Andreeva, and Tim Adler. Mail.com Media Corporation, 4 Sept. 2010. Web. 24 Mar. 2011.

41. Socioeconomic status factors greatly in these numbers as people with similar levels of education and salary tend to have similar access to the  Internet regardless of race. Gretchen Livingston. "Pew Hispanic Center." Latinos and Digital Technology. Pew Research Center, Feb. 2011. Web. 24 Mar. 2011.

42. "Machete." Internet Movie Database. Amazon, Sept. 2010. Web. 19 May 2012.
<http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0985694/>.

43. “Machete.” Rotten Tomatoes. Flixter, Sept. 2010. Web. 19 May 2012.
<http://www.rottentomatoes.com/m/machete/>.

44. Alex Jones. Info Wars. Ed. Kurt Nimmo, Aaron Dykes, Marleigh Jones, and Matt Ryan. Free Speech Systems, LLC , n.d. Web. 13 Feb. 2011. http://www.infowars.com . [return to page 3]

45. Alex Jones. Prison Planet. Ed. Kurt Nimmo, Aaron Dykes, Marleigh Jones, and Matt Ryan. Free Speech Systems, LLC , Web. 13 Feb. 2011. http://www.prisonplanet.com/

46. Dan Harris. “Angry in America: Inside Alex Jones' World.” Nightline. 2 Sept. 2010. Web. 5 Nov. 2011.

47. Dan Harris. “Angry in America: Inside Alex Jones' World.” Nightline. 2 Sept. 2010. Web. 5 Nov. 2011.
William Yardley. “White House Shooting Suspect’s Path to Extremism.” The New York Times. 20 Nov. 2011: A13. Web. 22 Nov. 2011.

48. Anti-Defamation League, Center on Extremism. (2009). Special Report “Rage Grows in America: AntiGovernment Conspiracies.”

49. Negative3. “New Robert Rodriguez movie promotes violence against White Americans.” White News Now. 6 July 2010. Web. 5 Nov. 2011.

50. Lianne Hart and Elaine Dutka. “This Guy is Driving Hollywood NUTS!” Los Angeles Times. 6 Aug. 1997. Web. 5 Nov. 2011. http://articles.latimes.com/1997/aug/06/entertainment/ca-20007

51. “Obama for America.” Notable Names Database. Soylent Communications. n.d. Web. 5 Nov. 2011.

52. Harry Knowles. “Hey Arizona, Don't Fuck With This Mexican... MACHETE has some Cinco De Mayo words for you!!! Now in 720p!” Ain’t it Cool News. Ed. Jeremy Smith. Steadfast Networks, 5 May 2010. Web. 24 Mar 2011.

53. Harry Knowles. “A Family Friendly “Machete?” What do you mean no Race War? & A Secret Frazetta Project?? Exclusive Robert Rodriguez Interview!!” Ain’t it Cool News. Ed. Jeremy Smith. Steadfast Networks, 19 May 2010. Web. 24 Mar 2011.

54. Inglorious Basterds is a fiction film about a team of Jewish American Nazi killers in World War II Germany.

55. Lauren Smiley. “White Nationalist Group To Protest 'Machete' Movie With Machetes This Weekend.” SF Weekly. 31 Aug. 2010. Web. 13 April 2011.

56. Amy di Miceli. "‘Robert Rodriguez Backpedals on His ‘Message to Arizona’." Info Wars. Ed. Kurt Nimmo, Aaron Dykes, Marleigh Jones, and Matt Ryan. Free Speech Systems, LLC, 24 May 2010. Web. 14 Mar 2011.

57. Jones, Alex, and Aaron Dykes. "‘Machete’ producers lied about racist bloodbath ." Prison Planet. Ed. Paul J. Watson, Steve Watson, Kurt Nimmo, and Aaron Dykes. Free Speech Systems, LLC, Sept. 2010. Web. 14 Mar. 2011.

58. Whether or not a film is overtly racist is subjective, however I personally believe Birth of a Nation is hardly the last overtly racist film.

59. The tax incentives to which he is referring were going to be from Texas for filming there, but were eventually denied, allegedly for portraying Texans in a negative light.
Martin Bartlett. “Texas' denial of incentives to ‘Machete’ likened to censorship.” KVUE 9 Dec 2010. Web. Mar 23 2011.

60. A “reconquista” view or a “reconquer” view of the U.S. refers to the so-called “Aztlan conspiracy” which is based on the literal interpretation of the1969 document the "Plan Espiritual de Aztlan" which argued that Chicanos should “reclaim the land of their birth.” Many nativist groups believe that this is a blueprint for a coming war by Chicanos to “reconquer” the Southwest.
Southern Poverty Law Center. Intelligence Report, Summer 2007, Issue Number: 101.

61. Arturo R. García and Thea Lim. "Table For Two: The Racialicious Review of Machete." Racilicious. Ed. Latoya Peterson and Thea Lim. N.p., 10 Sept. 2010. Web. 14 Mar. 2011. [return to page 4]

62. A Third Culture Kid is according to David C. Pollock, a person who has spent a significant part of [their] developmental years outside the parents' culture. The TCK frequently builds relationships to all of the cultures, while not having full ownership in any.” David C. Pollock and Ruth E. Van Reken. Third Culture Kids: Growing Up Among Worlds. Boston: Nicholas Brealey Publishing. 1999. Print.

63. Chon A. Noriega. “‘Waas sappening?’ Narrative structure and iconography in Born in East L.A.” Keyframes: Popular Cinema and Cultural Studies . Ed. Matthew Tinkcom and Amy Villarejo. New York: Routledge. 2001. Print.

64. To pass the test the film must have at least two women in it who talk to each other about something besides a man. “Machete 2010.” Bechdel Test Movie List. bechdeltest.com.

65. Throughout the film Torrez is flanked by a silent Asian woman who is sexualized and styled in an Orientalized manner.

66. Christina Radish. “Robert Rodriguez and Danny Trejo Interview MACHETE.” Collider.com. 29 Aug. 2010. Web. 15 Apr. 2011.

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