JUMP CUT
A REVIEW OF CONTEMPORARY MEDIA

 

 

Notes

1. I would like to acknowledge Prof. Ramona Curry for her constant support and helpful feedback. I would also like to thank the University of Illinois for the fellowship that funded this (and other) research, and Brown University and Prof. Luiz Valente for welcoming me as a visiting researcher in their institution. [return to page 1]

2. While Daddy Yankee’s birth name is Ramón Ayala, he is credited in the film as Daddy Yankee, so I will continue to refer to him by his stage name. On Talento de Barrio, see Francisco Celis Alban, “Impulsa su filme ‘Talento de Barrio’ Daddy Yankee en Medellín,” El Tiempo (Bogota) August 30, 2008. On Broche de Oro, see “Sigue en ascenso ‘Broche de oro,’” El Vocero (San Juan) September 27, 2012.

3. “Recomiendan ver la película puertorriqueña Broche de Oro,” Primera Hora (Guaynabo) September 18, 2012; “Corporación de Cine peleará por el Óscar para ‘Broche de Oro,’” Primera Hora (Gaynabo) October 4, 2012.

4. “Productor ‘Talento de barrio’ lamenta ningún filme Boricua aspire al Óscar,” EFE News Service (Madrid) October 2, 2008.

5. Joaquín “Kino” García Morales, “Cine puertorriqueño: filmografía, fuentes y referencias,” Cuadernos del Ateneo: Serie de Cine 5.1 (1997): 1-106.

6. “Filmarán al estilo de Hollywood en Puerto Rico,” Primera Hora (Guaynabo) January 12, 2009.

7. “Daddy Yankee,” Billboard, accessed August 1, 2003 http://www.billboard.com/artist/300083/daddy+yankee/chart?f=330

8. Alberto Castillo, “El Daddy se une a otras estrellas,” El nuevo día (San Juan) April 5, 2006.

9. Lys Amencio, “Notas cinematográficas,” Juan Bobo February 24, 1917: 30. James Beauchamp “Champ” Clark was a representative from Missouri in the Democratic Party and speaker of the U.S. House of Representatives from 1911 to 1919, who was an outspoken supporter of Manifest Destiny and the acquisition of former Spanish colonies following the Spanish-American War.

10. The Ateneo Puertorriqueño is a nonprofit organization aimed at promoting and supporting Puerto Rican culture. José Orraca-Brandenberger, La ley, el cine y la realidad, (San Juan: Editorial LEA, 2005), 9. All translations from the original Spanish are my own.

11. For a critique of the Law for Economic Incentives for the Puerto Rican Film Industry see, Ramón Almodóvar Ronda, “La industria de cine puertorriqueño: pasado, presente y ¿futuro?” Revista Cruce, February 27, 2012, http://www.revistacruce.com/politica-sociedad/la-industria-de-cine-puertorriqueno.html

12. Alberto Castillo, “El Daddy se une a otras estrella,” El nuevo día (San Juan) April 5, 2006.

13. Richard Abel, “Pathé Goes to Town: French films Create a Market for the Nickelodeon,” The Silent Cinema Reader, Ed. Lee Grieveson and Peter Kramer, (New York: Routledge, 2004), 107.

14. Steve Neale, “Western and Gangster Films Since the 1970s,” Genre and Contemporary Hollywood, Ed. Steve Neal, (London: BFI Publishing, 2002), 35.

15. Steve Neale, Genre and Hollywood, (New York: Routledge, 2000); Barry Langford, “The Gangster Film: Genre and Society,” Film Genre: Hollywood and Beyond, Ed. Barry Langford, (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2005), 132-157; Thomas Leitch, Crime Films, (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2002).

16. Thomas Leitch, Crime Films (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2002), 111.

17. While other films about criminals had been made in Puerto Rico, including two 1960’s productions on notorious Puerto Rican gangster Correa Cotto (Correa Cotto: así me llaman, and La venganza de Correa Cotto), three 1970’s productions about fugitive Antonio García López better known as “Toño Bicicleta” (El fugitivo de Puerto Rico, Toño Bicicleta, and La leyenda de Toño Bicicleta), and Poli Marichal’s Ladrones y mentirosos (2005), none achieved the financial and popular local success of Talento de barrio.

18. While neither Daddy Yankee nor José Ivan Santiago ever publicly acknowledged Talento’s budget it is rumored to have been close to $1.5 millions, a big budget for Puerto Rico (especially when compared to Broche de Oro’s $535,000) but extremely low in comparison to U.S. productions.

19. Talento de barrio sold more than 800,000 tickets in Puerto Rico, an island with a population of around 3.7 million, according to the 2010 census. Discounting the 19% of the population who is below the age of 14 (who theoretically could not attend an “R” rated film in theaters), and not accounting for repeated viewings, around 38% of the population over 14 saw the film in theaters in Puerto Rico.
Robert Koeler, “Talento de Barrio,” Variety, October 10, 2008 www.variety.com/review/VE1117938667/;
Kevin Thomas, “Old Message, New Faces in Barrio,” The L.A. Times, October 10, 2008 http://articles.latimes.com/2008/oct/10/entertainment/et-capsules10;
Neil Genzlinger, “Talento de Barrio,” The New York Times, October 10, 2008: C16.
María Ivette Vega Calles, “Favorecida por la gente broche de oro,” El nuevo día (San Juan), January 10, 2013.

20. Genzlinger, C16.

21. Raquel Z. Rivera, “Policing Morality, Mano Dura Stylee: The Case of Underground Rap and Reggae in Puerto Rico in the Mid-1990s,” Reggaeton, Ed. Raquel Z. Rivera, Wayne Marshall, and Deborah Pacini Hernandez, (Durham: Duke University Press, 2009), 118.

22. Alfredo Montalvo-Barbot, “Crime in Puerto Rico: Drug Trafficking, Money Laundering, and the Poor,” Crime and Delinquency 43.4 (1997): 534.

23. Edil Torres-Rivera and Loan T. Phan, “Puerto Rican Gangs: A Historical Overview,” Journal of Addiction and Offender Counseling 25 (2005): 91.

24. Montalvo-Barbot, 542.

25. In the mentioned scene Edgar’s mother begs him to stop selling drugs and she mentions that she does not want him to end up like his father, to which Edgar replies that times have changed.

26. Leitch, 103.

27. Chad Trulson, “The Social World of the Prisoner,” Prisons: Today and Tomorrow, Ed. Jocelyn M. Pollock, (Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishing, 2006), 99.

28. Barry Langford, “The Gangster Film: Genre and Society,” Film Genre: Hollywood and Beyond, Ed. Barry Langford, (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2005), 142.

29. Alberto Castillo, “El daddy se une a otras estrellas,” El nuevo día (San Juan) April 5, 2006.

30. Jaime Torres Torres, “Coco fue mi hermano,” El nuevo día (San Juan) August 13, 2008.

31. While salsa is now readily accepted by all sectors of Puerto Rican society, this has not always been the case. During the 70s local salsa artist experienced censorship and criticism for their lyrics. Cesar Miguel Rondón, The Book of Salsa: A Chronicle of Urban Music from the Caribbean to New York, (Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 2008), 206.
[return to page 2]

32. On rap, see Julian Tanner, Mark Asbridge and Scot Wortley, “Listening to Rap: Cultures of Crime, Cultures of Resistance,” Social Forces 88.2 (2009): 693; "On reggaetón," Francés Negrón Muntaner and Raquel Z. Rivera, “Reggaeton Nation” NACLA Report on the Americas 40.6 (2007): 36.

33. “Para oler como él,” El nuevo día (San Juan) October 16, 2008; Francisco Celis Alban, “Impulsa su filme ‘Talento de Barrio’ Daddy Yankee an Medellín,” El Tiempo (Bogotá) August 30, 2008; “Maya Entertainment adquiere 'Talento De Barrio' con la actuación de la superestrella Latina, Daddy Yankee” PR Newswire August 7, 2008; “Cantante Daddy Yankee asistirá al estreno de "Talento de barrio" en Panamá,” EFE News Service (Madrid) June 3, 2009; “Otro desembarco de la nación de ‘perreo’ en Montevideo,” El país (Uruguay) May 13, 2009; Leila Cobo, “Strike a ‘Pose,’” Billboard 120.23 (2008): 51.

34. Popular tourism website Tripadvisor ranks favela tours as the #39 (of 112) best thing to do in Rio de Janeiro, with an average review of four and a half stars. http://www.tripadvisor.com/Attraction_Review-g303506-d1637149-Reviews-Favela_Tour-Rio_de_Janeiro_State_of_Rio_de_Janeiro.html

35. Alberto Castillo, “El Daddy se une a otras estrellas,” El nuevo día (San Juan) April 5, 2006.

36. Ibid.

37. Puerto Rico Tourism Company, “Discover Puerto Rico,” accessed April 30, 2013, http://www.seepuertorico.com/

38. Robin Wood, Hollywood from Vietnam to Regan and Beyond, (1986; reprint, New York: Columbia University Press, 2003), 203-204.

39. H.J. Leonard, “Broche de Oro y la Tercera Edad,” Diálogo (San Juan) September 21, 2012.

40. David Greven, Manhood in Hollywood from Bush to Bush, (Austin: The University of Texas Press, 2009), 137.

41. “Recomiendan ver la película puertorriqueña Broche de Oro,” Primera Hora (Guaynabo) September 18, 2012.

42. Broche de oro sold over 750,000 tickets in its seven month run in film theaters, with at least four of those months playing exclusively in the Fine Arts Cinema. With its leather seating, wine and sushi bar, and a ticket price of $8 (compared to a price of $5-$6 at other theaters) the Fine Arts movie theaters clearly cater to a privileged audience. Frances Tirado Medina, “‘Broche de oro’ se doblará en chino mandarin,” Primera Hora (Guaynabo) March 8, 2013.

43. Frances Tirado Medina, “‘Broche de Oro’ se doblará en chino mandarin,” Primera Hora (Guaynabo) March 8, 2013.

44. The film was broadcasted on T.V. on December 21, 2008. It was released on movie theaters on August 14, 2008. Ana Enid López, “Ayuda a Santa Clos,” El nuevo día (San Juan) December 20, 2008.

45. The original Spanish version: El ser humano se equivoca/ no importa cuanto brilles en el futuro/ siempre cargamos con un pasado oscuro/ Puedes sacar al hombre de la calle/ pero no podras sacar la calle de un hombre/ Ahora me toca cerrar los ojos/ y ponerlo todo en una balanza/ si regreso y tomo venganza/ o sigo mi camino.

Bibliography

“Cantante Daddy Yankee asistirá al estreno de ‘Talento de barrio’ en Panamá.” EFE News Service (Madrid) June 3, 2009.

“Corporación de Cine peleará por el Óscar para ‘Broche de Oro,’” Primera Hora (Gaynabo) October 4, 2012.

“Maya Entertainment adquiere 'Talento De Barrio' con la actuación de la superestrella Latina, Daddy Yankee.” PR Newswire August 7, 2008.

“Otro desembarco de la nación de ‘perreo’ en Montevideo.” El país (Uruguay) May 13, 2009.

“Para oler como él,” El nuevo día (San Juan) October 16, 2008.

“Productor ‘Talento de barrio’ lamenta ningún filme Boricua aspire al Óscar,” EFE News Service (Madrid) October 2, 2008.

“Recomiendan ver la película puertorriqueña Broche de Oro,” Primera Hora (Guaynabo) September 18, 2012.

“Sigue en ascenso ‘Broche de oro,’” El Vocero (San Juan) September 27, 2012.

Abel, Richard. “Pathé Goes to Town: French films Create a Market for the Nickelodeon.” The Silent Cinema Reader. Ed. Lee Grieveson and Peter Kramer. New York: Routledge, 2004: 103-118.

Amencio, Lys. “Notas cinematográficas.” Juan Bobo February 24, 1917: 29-31.

Castillo, Alberto. “El Daddy se une a otras estrellas,” El nuevo día (San Juan) April 5, 2006.

Celis Alban, Francisco. “Impulsa su filme ‘Talento de Barrio’ Daddy Yankee an Medellín.” El Tiempo (Bogotá) August 30, 2008.

Cobo, Leila. “Strike a ‘Pose.’” Billboard 120.23 (2008): 51.

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Tanner, Julian, Mark Asbridge and Scot Wortley. “Listening to Rap: Cultures of Crime, Cultures of Resistance.” Social Forces 88.2 (2009): 693-722.

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Wood, Robin. Hollywood from Vietnam to Regan and Beyond. 1986. New York: Columbia University Press, 2003.


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