Acknowledgments: I would like to thank Bojana Vujanovic and Gisèle Rapp-Meichler for their extensive answers to my questions, as well as Greg deCuir, Milan Milosavljevic, Diana Nenadic, Michelle Mellor and Bryan Konefsky for their help in gathering additional information for this review. Thank you to the artists for permission to use stills.

1. Miodrag Milosevic, ed., Film After Film: 30th Anniversary of the Alternative film/video festival (Belgrade: Akademski filmski centar, Dom culture Studentski grad, 2013), p.7 and Branislaw Miltojevi, "The cine club era, or a few theses about first (anti)cinema/alternative explorations and experiments," Milosevic, ed., The Cine-Club Era (Belgrade: Akademski filmski centar, Dom culture Studentski grad, 2011), p.77.
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2. Peter Wollen, 1984, quoted in Milosevic, "Alternative Film and Video in Yugoslavia," 2011, p.55.

3. Barbara Borcic, "Video Art from Conceptualism to Postmodernism," Dubravka Djuric and Misko Suvakovic, eds., Impossible Histories: Historical Avant-gardes, Neo-avant-gardes, and Post-avant-gardes in Yugoslavia, 1918-1991 (Cambridge: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2003).

4. Pavle Levi, Cinema by other means (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012), pp.14 and 47.

5. Djuric and Suvakovic, 2003, p.52.

6. Other festivals in the region include Amateur and Artist Film Festival in Pula (MAFAF, 1965-1990) and the Alternative Film Meeting in Split (1977-1987).

7. See, Miodrag Milosevic, ed., Found Footage (Belgrade: Akademski filmski centar, Dom culture Studentski grad, 2010) and Archives, Digitalization, Distribution of Alternative Films in the Region (Belgrade: Akademski filmski centar, Dom culture Studentski grad, 2012).

8. ‘Timeline: Break-up of Yugoslavia’, BBC News Channel, 22 May 2006 at
Accessed on 25 July 2014. See also Tim Judah, The Serbs. History, Myth and the Destruction of Yugoslavia (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2000), pp.312-337.

9. See also Greg de Cuir, Yugoslav Black Wave: Polemical cinema from 1963-72 in the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Belgrade: Film Center Serbia, 2011).

10. This A4 flyer formed a part of the retrospective, Anti-Cinema 1963/64; 1965/70 at the Museum of Contemporary Art in Belgrade (23 June – 16 July 1976).

11. See P. Adams Sitney, Visionary Film. The American Avant-Garde 1943-2000 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002), pp.347-348.
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12. Ibid., p.348.

13. Peter Gidal, Structuralist Film Anthology (London: British Film Institute, 1976). See also Materialist Film (London and New York: Routledge, 1989).

14. Gidal, 1976, p.1.

15. Ibid.

16. Ibid.

17. Ibid.

18. Ibid. 82 and Peter Gidal, Materialist Film (London and New York: Routledge, 1989).

19. David Curtis, A History of Artists’ Film and Video in Britain (London: British Film Institute, 2007), p.25. See also A.L. Rees, A History of Experimental Film and Video (London: BFI, 1999), pp.77-82.

20. Paul Schrader, Transcendental Style in Film. Ozu, Bresson and Dreyer (Boston: DaCapo Press, 1988), p.166.

21. See Slobodan Sijan, "Antifilm: Us & Them" diagram, June 1976, as well as Milosevic, 2013, p.52.

22. Sijan, 1976.

23. Gidal, 1976, p.6.

24. Email conversations between Bojana Vujanovic and myself, July 29, 2014.

25. Email conversations between Bojana Vujanovic and myself, March 13-26, 2014.

26. Email conversation between Diana Nenadic and myself, February 28, 2014.

27. Ibid.

28. Ibid.

29. See, for example, Rozsika Parker and Griselda Pollock, Old Mistresses: Women, Art and Ideology (London and Henley: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1981), xvii.

30. Jackie Hatfield, "Expanded Cinema and Narrative. Some Reasons for a Review of the Avant-Garde Debates Around Narrativity," Millennium Film Journal, no. 39/40, Winter 2003.

31. The question of feminism in Eastern Europe and the Balkans requires a more complex discussion, which is outside the scope of this review. See, for example, Allaine Czerwonka, "Travelling Feminist Thought: Difference and Transculturation in Central and Eastern European Feminism," Signs, vol.33, no.4, 2008.

32. Lill-Ann Chepstow-Lusty, "Women’s Images of Men," Discussion Forum, Nottingham Contemporary, UK, 2014. With Catherine Elwes, Lill Ann Chepstow-Lusty and Amy Tobin. Available at
. Accessed on 14 June 2014.

33. This talk centered on the two ICA exhibitions from the 1980s: "Women’s Images of Men" and "About Time."

34. Parker and Pollock, 1981, p.50. See also Cindy Nemser, "Art Criticism and Women Artists," Journal of Aesthetic Education, vol.7, no.3, 1973 and Mary Ann Doane, "Aesthetics and Politics. Beyond the Gaze: Recent Approaches to Film Feminisms," Signs, vol.30, no.1, 2004.

35. For more details on Light Cone, see

36. Email conversation between Gisèle Rapp-Meichler and myself, March 8, 2014.

37. See for example, Marek Haltof, Polish Film and the Holocaust. Politics and Memory (New York: Berghahn Books, 2014).

39. See Kurt Schwitters, "Ideas for Poems," Jerome Rothenberg and Pierre Joris, ed. and trans., Kurt Schwitters: poems performance pieces proses plays poetics (Cambridge: Exact Change, 2002), p.87 [1926].

40. See Basement Films at

41. The Torso Exhibition leaflet.

42. See Peter Bürger, Theory of the Avant-Garde (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1984).

43. Karpo Godina, 2012, quoted in Milosevic, 2013, p.121.

44. Women's exclusion as decision-makers in the film world still remains an issue even in mainstream cinema. Take, for example, the fact that only in January 2014 a renowned Polish filmmaker Agnieszka Holland was made the first female chair of the European Film Academy. See Polish Cultural Institute, New York at

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