1. All time slots discussed in this essay will use Eastern Standard Time. [return to text]

2. Dobrow, Larry. “Night Time the Right Time in Snaring Young Eyeballs.” Advertising Age 9 May 2005. LexisNexis. Web. 18 June 2010.

3. Seidman, Robert. “Updated TV Ratings: The Jay Leno Show Premieres Big, Rises to 18.4 Million in the Final #s.” TV by the Numbers 15 September 2009. Web. 8 June 2010.

4. The Super Bowl is typically the most watched program of the year. The 2009 Super Bowl reached around 95 million viewers, thus exposing a large number of people to The Jay Leno Show. See: Collins, Scott. “Super Bowl Gets 95.4 Million Viewers; No. 3 Telecast of All Time.” Los Angeles Times 2 Feb. 2009. Web. 11 Aug. 2014; Stelter, Brian. “NBC Builds Anticipation for 10 P.M.” New York Times 5 August 2009. Web.6 August 2009.

5. Stelter, Brian. “Ad Losses Put Squeeze on TV News.” New York Times 11 May 2009. Web. 4 August 2014.

6. Quoted in Schneider, Michael. “NBC Cancels ‘Jay Leno Show.’” Variety 10 January 2010. Web. 10 January 2010.

7. Curtin, Michael and Jane Shattuc. The American Television Industry. New York: Palgrave MacMillan, 2009. 63.

8. Mittell, Jason. “The Aesthetics of Failure.” The Velvet Light Trap. Number 64. Fall 2009. 77.

9. Leno had been ranked in the top ten favorite television personalities every year between 1994 and 2009 but one according to the annual Harris Poll. During many of those years, talk show hosts accounted for at least half of the top ten, which attests to the degree that a stripped program’s regularity builds long-term relationships with viewers.  See: “Here’s Jay! Jay Leno Is America’s Favorite Television Personality.” Harris Interactive 28 January 2009. Web. 4 August 2014.

10. Headlines was a regular segment in which Leno made fun of erroneous headlines found in newspapers across the nation. The segment was so popular that several books were published that compiled the most popular Headlines over the years he was on The Tonight Show. Jaywalking was an occasional segment which involved Leno wandering through the streets of Los Angeles and asking people current event or history questions, resulting in humorous and unexpected responses. Several of the more popular individuals featured on Jaywalking received their own segments on The Tonight Show. Battle of the Jaywalk All-Stars featured several of these individuals competing in a Jeopardy-style quiz competition.

11. Timberg, Bernard M. Television Talk: A History of the TV Talk Show. Austin: University of Texas Press, 2002. 45-47.

12. Ibid. 106 and 151.

13. Ibid. 155.

14. Carter, Bill. “The Late-Night-Lead Turnabout.” New York Times 6 Nov. 1995. Web. 5 Aug. 2014.

15. O.J. Simpson, a former professional football player turned actor, was charged with killing his ex-wife, Nicole Brown, and her friend, Ronald Goldman, in June 1994. After failing to turn himself into police, he led a widely broadcast police chase on June 17, 1994, before surrendering. Beginning in January 1995, Simpson’s eight-month long trial was controversial, and it was covered endlessly by news outlets. The length of the trial, as well as its highly public nature, made it a rife target for comedic bits, including Leno’s “The Dancing Itos” segment making fun of presiding judge Lance Ito.  See: Lowry, Brian. “Changing Channels: Top Few Reasons Behind Dave’s Dive, Jay’s Rise.” Variety 3 Jan. 1996. Web. 5 Aug. 2014.

16. Carter, Bill. “Fox Will Sign Up 12 New Stations; Takes 8 from CBS.” New York Times 24 May 1994. Web. 5 Aug. 2014.

17. Lowry, Brian. “Low Lead-in Lessens Lead of Letterman.” Variety 10 Mar. 1995. Web. 5 Aug. 2014.

18. Littleton, Cynthia. “Letterman Staying ‘Late?’” Variety 8 June 2009. LexisNexis. Web. 18 June 2010.

19. Jones, Jeffrey P. “I Want My Talk TV: Network Talk Shows in a Digital Universe.” Beyond Prime Time: Television Programming in the Post-Network Era. Ed. Amanda Lotz. New York: Routledge, 2009. 15.

20. O’Connell, Michael. “TV Ratings: 11.3 Million Viewers Watched Jimmy Fallon’s ‘Tonight Show’ Premiere.” Hollywood Reporter 18 February 2014. Web. 2 June 2014.

21. Lotz, Amanda. The Television Will Be Revolutionized. New York: New York University Press, 2007. 8.

22. Ibid. 19.

23. Hibberd, James. “DVR Data Has Nets Pausing.” Hollywood Reporter 14 Oct. 2008. LexisNexis. Web. 8 Aug. 2014.

24. Raphael, Chad. “The Political Economic Origins of Reali-TV.” Reality TV: Remaking Television Culture. Eds. Susan Murray and Laurie Ouellette. New York: New York University Press, 2004. 124-127.

25. Bierbaum, Tom. “‘Millionaire’ Helps ABC Cash Nielsens.” Variety 31 August 1999. LexisNexis. Web. 6 June 2010.

26. Quoted in Adalian, Josef. “ABC Slots Sweeps with ‘Millionaire.’” Variety 24 September 1999. LexisNexis. Web. 6 June 2010.

27. Bierbaum, Tom. “‘Millionaire’ Dividends Sweeping ABC to Crown.” Variety 22 November 1999. LexisNexis. Web. 6 June 2010.

28. Streisand, Betsy. “Millionaire’s Luster Fades.” U.S. News & World Report 23 October 2000. LexisNexis. Web. 6 June 2010.

29. Roberts, Johnnie L. “How to Use a Lifeline.” Newsweek 28 February 2000. LexisNexis. Web. 6 June 2010.

30. Ibid.

31. Carter, Bill. “Fixing a Vulnerable ‘Millionaire.’” New York Times 30 October 2000. LexisNexis. Web. 18 June 2010.

32. Kissell, Rick. “Peacock Pads Lead.” Variety 24 May 2001. LexisNexis. Web. 6 June 2010.

33. Quoted in Collins, Scott. “ABC Vows More ‘Traditional’ Fare.” Hollywood Reporter 21 March 2002. LexisNexis. Web. 6 June 2010.

34. Schneider, Michael. “Peacock Preens.” Variety 23 May 2002. LexisNexis. Web. 6 June 2010.

35. Quoted in Carter, Bill. “Who Wants to Bury a Millionaire?” New York Times 20 May 2002. LexisNexis. Web. 18 June 2010.

36. Lotz, Amanda. “Must-See TV: NBC’s Dominant Decades.” NBC: America’s Network. Ed. Michele Hilmes. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2007. [return to page 2]

37. Gorman, Bill. “10 PM Ratings Grab Because of The Jay Leno Show Isn’t That Big a Deal.” TV By the Numbers 12 September 2009. Web. 18 June 2010.

38. Elliott, Stuart. “A Deluge By NBC to Promote Leno’s New Show.” New York Times 13 September 2009. LexisNexis. Web. 15 May 2012.

39. Undercovers was a high-profile series for NBC, as the pilot was directed by J.J. Abrams and produced by his studio, Bad Robot. NBC cancelled the show after its eleventh episode due to continued low ratings, and the last two episodes never aired on the network. With the $10 million budget for the pilot, and an average of $3 million per episode, NBC spent at least $40 million on this one program.  See: Rosen, Christopher. “NBC Unveils New Business Plan: Throw Money at the Problem.” Movieline 3 May 2010. LexisNexis. Web. 18 May 2012.

40. Arango, Tim and Bill Carter. “An Unsteady Future for Broadcast.” New York Times 20 November 2009. LexisNexis. Web. 18 May 2012.

41. Only Community, which aired as part of NBC’s Thursday night comedy block, was not produced or co-produced by Universal Media Studios during the 2008-2009 prime time season. It was produced by Sony Pictures Television.

42. “Panelists Call NBC’s ‘Leno’ Move Gutsy.” Hollywood Reporter 22 September 2009. Web. 23 September 2009.

43. Steinberg, Brian. “‘Sunday Night Football’ Remains Costliest TV Show.” Advertising Age 26 October 2009. Web. 26 October 2009.

44. During the upfront advertising period in which advertisers pay for spots to be aired during the upcoming season’s prime time hours, the network provides a guaranteed audience size for a program. If a program does not meet its guaranteed audience size, the network must offer supplemental time to the advertiser to make up the difference between the guaranteed audience size and the actual size (make goods).

45. “Nielsen IAG Product Placement Activity Report.” Advertising Age 2 October 2009. Web. 2 October 2009.

46. Schneider, Michael. “Leno Leads in Product Placement.” Variety 23 December 2009. LexisNexis. Web. 14 June 2010.

47. Quoted in Carter, Bill. “NBC Offers Marketers an Expanded Fall Lineup.” New York Times 4 May 2009. LexisNexis. Web. 14 June 2010.

48. Adgate, Brad. “It’s 10 O’Clock…Do You Know What’s on TV?” Advertising Age 3 November 2009. Web. 3 November 2009.

49. Quoted in Stelter, Brian. “Jay Leno’s Move Hints at Future of Prime time TV.” New York Time. 12 December 2008. LexisNexis. Web. 7 August 2009.

50. Schneider, Michael. “CBS Unveils ‘Project LENO.’” Variety 25 June 2009. Web. 26 June 2009.

51. Quoted in “TV Writers Slam NBC for ‘Leno Show.’” Hollywood Reporter 7 August 2009. LexisNexis. Web. 15 June 2010.

52. Quoted in Poniewozik, James. “Jay Leno Is the Future of TV. Seriously.” Time 3 September 2009. LexisNexis. Web. 18 June 2010.

53. Quoted in Stelter, “Jay Leno’s Move Hints at Future of Prime time TV.”

54. Quoted in “TV Writers Slam NBC for ‘Leno Show.’”

55. Frutkin, A.J. “TV Hero.” Mediaweek 20 August 2007. LexisNexis. Web. 21 June 2010; Dempsey, John and Michael Schneider. “G4, Mojo Welcome ‘Heroes’ Re-runs.” Variety 10 October 2007. LexisNexis. Web. 15 June 2010; “US DVD Sales Chart for Week Ending October 21, 2007.” The Numbers n.d. Web. 21 June 2010.

56. Lotz, The Television Will Be Revolutionized. 141.

57. Lowry, Tom. “Comcast Inks Early Pact with CBS.” Variety 2 August 2010. Web. 6 January 2011.

58. Sehjal, Ujala. “Fox News Is Almost as Important as ESPN, and Wants Subscriber Fees to Reflect That.” Business Insider 8 December 2010. LexisNexis. Web. 6 January 2011.

59. Quoted in Schneider, Michael. “Boston Doesn’t Want Jay Leno Show.” Variety 2 April 2009. Web. 9 July 2009.

60. Schneider, Michael. “Boston to Air Primetime Leno.” Variety 13 April 2009. Web. 9 July 2009.

61. Lowry, Brian. “It’s No Longer the Affiliates’ Ballgame.” Variety 5 June 2009. Web. 9 July 2009.

62. Quoted in Carter, Bill. “Debate over Effects of Leno’s Show.” New York Times 11 October 2009. Web. 11 October 2009. [return to page 3]

63. TNT eventually picked up the series with season two and Southland aired on the network until April 2013.

64. Quoted in Andreeva, Nellie. “‘Southland’ Cancelled.” Hollywood Reporter 8 Oct. 2009. Web. 6 Aug. 2014.

65. Kissell, Rick. “O’Brien a Demo Dynamo.” Variety 28 August 2009. Web. 15 June 2010.

66. Seidman, Robert. “Tonight Show Premiere Week Down Versus Last Year.” TV By the Numbers 1 October 2009. Web. 16 June 2010; Gorman, Bill. “Letterman Tops Conan in Viewers, Adults 18-49 & 25-54 for the First Time Since 2005.” TV By the Numbers 1 October 2009. Web. 16 June 2010.

67. Kissell, Rick. “Latenight’s Shift.” Variety 13 Nov. 2009. LexisNexis. Web. 6 Aug. 2014.

68. Quoted in Malone, Michael. “NBC Affiliates Okay on ‘Jay’ So Far.” Broadcasting & Cable 29 September 2009. LexisNexis. Web. 2 November 2009.

69. Flint, Joe. “Jay Leno’s New Time Slot Wreaks Havoc for NBC Affiliates.” Los Angeles Times 19 Oct. 2009. Web. 6 Aug. 2014.

70. Quoted in Malone, Michael. “NBC Affiliates Standing by ‘Jay Leno Show.’” Broadcasting & Cable 30 October 2009. LexisNexis. Web. 2 November 2009.

71. Ovide, Shira. “NBC, Affiliates Begin to Make Up.” Wall Street Journal 25 January 2010. Web. 31 January 2010.

72. O&Os are owned and operated stations by the networks. The FCC limits the number of O&O stations a network can own so that they do not surpass a reach of 39% of all U.S. television households. In 2009, NBC Universal owned 10 NBC stations. Although the specific amounts that the NBC O&O’s lost as a result of the audience drop-off are not available, a few reports indicate the significant impact that The Jay Leno Show had on them. First, Shira Ovide of the Wall Street Journal estimates that NBC’s New York station was losing over $158,000 per week as a result of the audience dropoff, while the Los Angeles station was losing over $112,000 weekly. Second, General Electric’s 2009 annual report indicates that the NBC Universal subsidiary performed worse in terms of both revenues and profits than in 2008 partly as a result of lower advertising revenues in the broadcast television business. See: General Electric. 2009 Annual Report. Fairfield, CT: 2010. Web. 6 January 2011.

73. Schneider, Michael. “NBC Reality Check.” Variety 11 January 2010. Web. 30 January 2010.

74. Rice, Lynette. “NBC Denies That Jay Leno Is Being Yanked.” Entertainment Weekly 7 January 2010. Web. 7 January 2010.

75. Quoted in Schneider, “NBC Cancels ‘Jay Leno Show.’”

76. Quoted in Stelter, “Jay Leno’s Move Hints at Future of Prime time TV.”

77. Gorman, Bill. “Final 2009-10 Broadcast Primetime Show Average Viewership.” TV By the Numbers 16 June 2010. Web. 16 June 2010.

78. Malone, Michael. “CBS Affils Want 10 P.M. Dramas to Fill Out Hour.” Broadcasting & Cable 19 October 2009. LexisNexis. Web. 18 June 2010.

79. Weisman, Jon. “‘Parenthood’ Makes NBC Proud.” Variety 7 April 2010. Web. 17 June 2010.

80. Carter, Bill. “Viewer Age Rises with Leno Return.” New York Times 11 April 2010. Web. 12 April 2010.

81. Quoted in Schneider, Michael. “Conan to NBC: Drop Dead.” Variety 12 January 2010. Web. 12 January 2010.

82. Bercovici, Jeff. “Leno and NBC: Measuring Damage to a Late Night Brand.” Daily Finance 15 March 2010. LexisNexis. Web. 7 January 2011.

83. Hibberd, James. “Leno Ratings: ‘Tonight’s’ Worst Summer Ever.” Hollywood Reporter 3 September 2010. Web. 4 September 2010.

84. Bercovici, Jeff. “Jay Leno’s Pay Cut Reflects Diminished Stat of Late Night.” Forbes 20 August 2012. Web. 4 June 2014.

85. Ciminelli, David. “First Advertisers on Conan O’Brien Show Revealed.” Hollywood Reporter 4 November 2010. Web. 5 November 2010.

86. Carter, Bill. “High Hopes for Conan O’Brien’s Debut.” New York Times 7 November 2010. Web. 8 November 2010.

87. Quoted in Ausiello, Michael. “NBC Confirms ‘Jay Leno Show’ Leaving Primetime.” Entertainment Weekly 10 January 2010. Web. 10 January 2010.

88. Quoted in Sepinwall, Alan. “NBC’s 2010-11 Schedule: Still Paying the Price for ‘The Jay Leno Show.’” Hitfix 16 May 2010. Web. 8 Aug. 2014.

89. “Booming ‘Voice.’” Variety 5 May 2011. LexisNexis. Web. 8 Aug. 2014.

90. Revolution was moved from its Monday timeslot for the 2nd season to Wednesdays at 8 PM, and it never recovered the ratings seen with The Voice as its lead-in.

91. Carter, Bill. “NBC Rides ‘The Voice’ From Worst to First Place.” New York Times 9 Dec. 2012. Web. 8 Aug. 2014.


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