1. Varanasi is the holiest of the seven sacred cities in Hindu religion. [return to page 1]

2. See Caminho das Indias international trailer.

3. See above

6. See (Salem 2012).

7. Dayakishan Thussu defines ‘dominant [media] flows,’ as programming largely emanating from the global North, with the United States at its core; followed by contra-flows that originate from the erstwhile peripheries of global media industries (Thussu 2006).

8. Parsi – Zorastrian : Parsis follow the religion of Zoroaster, an Iranian prophet of the seventh century B. C.. The Parsis emigrated to India from Persia to avoid religious persecution by the Muslims. They arrived in India in the 8th century. See Encyclopedia Britannica - Parsi n.d..

12. Brahmin is the highest caste in Hindu caste hierarchy. [return to page 2]

13. Ganga is a reference to the river Ganges and is personified as a goddess. The British referred to the river as Ganges. In Hindu religion it is believed that bathing in the river washes away sins and liberates the soul from the cycle of birth and death thereby facilitating moksha. The opening scene of the telenovela is shot in Varanasi on the bank of river Ganga.

14. Hindi word for riverbank.

15. Dalit is a designation for a group of people traditionally regarded as untouchable. Dalits are a mixed population, consisting of numerous social groups from all over India; they speak a variety of languages and practice a multitude of religions .       

16. Other social differences like family rivalry.

17. In Planet Hong Kong David Bordwell defines Chinese popular cinema’s distinct aesthetic. He describes the films’ form and energy as: (1) non-contemplative, (2) “Manichean”, (3) loosely plotted (and of ‘kaleidoscopic variety’), (5) kinesthetically arousing, (6) flashback using (7) tradition refining (as opposed to originality seeking western films), (8) favoring formulas and clichés, (9) brutal in their violence, (10) plagiaristic, and (11) possessing a tendency to “swerve into a happy ending.”

18. Mother-in-law daughter-in-law saga.

19. Ekta Kapoor is an Indian TV and film producer. She is the Joint Managing Director and Creative Director of Balaji Telefilms, her production company. She has produced numerous soap opera, television series and movies.

20. Mangal Dosha is an astrological combination that occurs if Mars (astrology)(Mangal) is in the 1st, 2nd, 4th, 7th, 8th, or 12th house of the Vedic astrology Ascendant chart. A person born in the presence of this condition is termed a manglik. This condition is astrologically believed to be unfavorable for marriages, causing discomfort and tension in relationship, leading to severe disharmony among the spouses and eventually to other bigger problems. This is attributed to the "fiery" nature of Mars, the planet of war. (Source: Wikipedia)

21. Karva Chauth is an annual one-day festival celebrated by Hindu women in North India, the Indian state of Gujarat and parts of Pakistan in which married women fast from sunrise to moonrise for the safety and longevity of their husbands. (Source: Wikipedia)

22. Karan Johar type of films.

23. Indian men and women born as Mangliks are believed to be cursed. It is believed that Mangalik Dosha negatively impacts married life, causing tension and sometimes the untimely death of one of the partners. To cancel these effects, a Kumbh Vivah can be performed before the wedding. This is a wedding between a Mangalik and either a statue of Vishnu or an earthen pot or peepal or banana tree. Source: www.speakingtree.in [THIS DOES NOT SEEM TO BE A VALID LINK]

24. Thanks to a decrease in poverty from almost 40% of the population in 2001 to around 25% in 2009, 31 million people joined the middle class in Brazil. Today 52% of Brazil’s population is middle class. [return to page 3]

25. Played by Brazilian actors.

26. The GDP indicates the market value of all final goods and services from a nation in a given year.

27. Mediascapes refer both to the distribution of the electronic capabilities to produce and disseminate information (newspapers, magazines, television stations, film production studios, etc.), which are now available to a growing number of private and public interests throughout the world; and to the images of the world created by these media. These images of the world involve many complicated inflections, depending on their mode (documentary or entertainment), their hardware (electronic or pre-electronic), their audience (local, national or transnational) and the interests of those who own and control them. What is most important about these mediascapes is that they provide (especially in television film and cassette forms) large and complex repertoires of images, narratives and 'ethnoscapes' to viewers throughout the world, in which the world of commodities and the world of 'news' and politics are profoundly mixed. (Appadurai 1990)

28. The Portuguese colonized Goa in 1510 and it remained a colony until 1960. Portugal did not give up control over Goa at the end of British colonial rule in 1947. In December, 1961 Indian Army began military operations to seize control over Goa and declared Goa an Indian territory. [Source: Wikipedia]

29. Right Wing dictator of Portugal Antonio de Oliviera Salazar insisted that Goa and Daman and Diu were as Portuguese as Lisbon. He claimed that the territories were not colonies but “part of a metropolitan Portugal.” See (Gavaghan 2013)

30. See (Gautam 2010).

31. See (Press Trust of India 2009) and (Infosys Technologies Opens its First Development Center in Brazil 2009).

32. The concept of cultural proximity (Straubhaar, 1991) in this case could be stretched to imply that a text can provide local viewers with ideological content that does not challenge or question the viewers’ own values and beliefs but rather returns them to an idealized reception state in which telenovelas provide a melodramatic and safe cathartic space. See (Pastina and Straubhaar 2005).

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