1. Adegoke, Yinka.  “Time Warner: It’s the Hits, Stupid.”  Blog.reuters.com. U.S. version. Reuters. 8 January, 2009.  Web.  3 November, 2014.

2. Elberse, Anita.  Blockbusters: Hit-making, Risk-taking, and the Big Business of Entertainment. New York: Henry Holt & Co., 2013.

3. Peary, Danny. Alternate Oscars. New York: Dell Publishing, 1993.

4. Harris, Mark. Pictures at a Revolution. New York: Penguin Books, 2008.

5. Lewis, Hilary. “Ready for ‘The Dark Knight’ Parts III, IV, V, and VI?” businesinsider.com. Business Insider. 4 February, 2009. Web. 5 November, 2014.

6. Box office numbers are sometimes difficult to confirm.  I have tended to rely on Tim Dirks’ website www.filmsite.org.

7. Zoller Seitz, Matt. Defining Moments in Movies. Ed. Chris Fujiwara. London: Cassell Illustrated, 2007: 619.  Seitz’ short essay defines what he calls the “fully vertically-integrated corporate blockbuster.”

8. Weiler, Lance. “Virtual Discovery.”  Filmmaker. Vol 17, No. 2. Winter 2009.

9. Macaulay, Scott. “Blog.” Filmmakermagazine.com. Filmmaker. 5 February, 2011. Web. 5 November, 2014.

10. Sconce, Jeffrey. “Irony, Nihilism, and the New American “Smart” Film. Academia.edu. Winter, 2002. Web. 6 November, 2014.

11. Many female writer/producers have found a more welcoming home on television than in the world of feature films. Writer Winner Holtzman, creator of the teen drama My So-Called Life, speaking on a panel at the 1993 Austin Heart of Film Screenwriting Conference, explained some of the advantages of television.  One advantage she described was that television operates on a much faster work schedule and that feedback from your audience came much faster than it did from a movie.  Therefore, the learning curve for a television writer is much steeper.  They learn very quickly what works and what doesn’t work, and can grow and improve as a result.

12. From the Criterion Collection DVD of Salvatore Giuliano.  In commentary, film critic Peter Cowie relates the following from Francesco Rossi: “Our generation was impressed and dominated by the camera because the camera was a means of expression.  Nowadays, with digital cameras and very small cameras, it’s all changed.  At the time of Salvatore Giuliano, the camera was a mystery and had to be wielded with great skill.  The choice of composition or movement was very important.  Today, young directors are much more casual in their attitude toward the camera.” Date unknown.

13. Carson, Diane. “Let’s Not Compromise: An Interview with Independent Film Producer Maggie Renzi.” Journal of Film and Video. Spring, 2010. Renzi, when discussing the current crop of smaller, independent-minded films, says “... they're all competing for the same space in art house theaters and in the mind of the moviegoers. What happens with this glut of films- where there's no real winnowing system early on, and there's the huge impulse toward anything new and reaching the youth audience- is that we're getting a lot of unfinished films, films where the bar isn't set high enough for storytelling, for universality of story, of theme, and particularly where the production values are really not good enough.”

14. Cieply, Michael. “One Star, 2 Films and Conflict.” Nytimes.com. The New York Times. 5 November, 2014. Web. 6 November, 2014.

15. Corliss, Richard. “Billion Dollar Babies.” Content.time.com. Time Magazine. 1 January, 2010. Web. 8 November, 2014. http://content.time.com/time/specials/packages/article/

As with box office figures, budget numbers can be hard to verify.  Corliss notes that the average movie budget doubled in ten years, from $53 million in 1998 to $106 million in 2008.

16. Zeitchik, Steven. “Specialty Film Business Reeling After Cutbacks.” Reuters.com. Reuters. 6 June, 2008. Web. 5 November 2014.

Additional Reading

Denby, David. Do the Movies Have a Future? New York: Simon & Schuster, 2012.  New Yorker film critic David Denby discusses a variety of issues facing the modern film world, including the concept of “platform agnosticism.”

Turran, Kenneth. Sundance to Sarajevo: Film Festival and the World They Made. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2002. Turan, film critic for the Los Angeles Times, discusses the impact of film festivals on the film world in a personal account of his travels.

Various. History of American Cinema Series. Ed. Charles Harpole. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, Various. Harpole’s ten volume history, each book written by a different author and focusing on a different decade, is an excellent resource for tracking the evolution of t he American film industry.

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