Many thanks to John McClure for thought-provoking conversation on Even the Rain, to the Jump Cut editors for excellent feedback, and to Kate Eggleston for valuable help with the visuals.
2. Jagoda’s historically-informed analysis of network form draws on the work of sociologists, military strategists, as well as post-9/11 cultural texts like the film Syriana.
3. In The Condition of Postmodernity Harvey describes late twentieth-century capitalism as marked by a shift from fixed, Fordist methods of production to more flexible modes of capital accumulation, involving financial speculation and increased mobility of capital across geographical boundaries.
4. Harvey defines neoliberalism as
Harvey adds that while neoliberal theory began to gain traction in the 1970s,
5. Jim Shultz describes how,
Bechtel’s eventual ownership of Cochabamba’s water system had disastrous consequences for residents’ water bills. Shultz adds that, “rate increases…averaged more than 50 percent, and in some cases much higher” (18).
6. Networks, as a form of social organization, are also not new. A key theorist of networks within the contemporary capitalist world system is sociologist Manuel Castells, who introduced the term “network society.” In The Rise of the Network Society, Castells defines a network as “a set of interconnected nodes” (501) and argues,
7. In another essay, “From Genre to Form,” Levine argues that the networked form of Bleak House resembles that of the long-form television series, The Wire:
8. Jagoda attributes the term “hyperlink cinema” to Roger Ebert; however, in an online review of the film, Syriana, Ebert suggests that he borrowed the term from a “recent blog item.”
9. Immanuel Wallerstein differentiates between “core” and “peripheral” zones of the modern world-system, with “core” referring to the advanced capitalist economies and “peripheral” referring to the less developed economies that core nations exploit or plunder for the furthering of capitalist accumulation.
10. See Rachael K Bosley’s article, “Forging Connections,” for American Cinematographer magazine.
11. Paul Laverty has written the scripts for several Ken Loach films including Carla’s Song (1996), Bread and Roses (2000), Sweet Sixteen (2002), The Wind That Shakes the Barley (2006), Route Irish (2010), and The Angels’ Share (2012). [return to page 2]
12. Icíar Bollaín mentions in an interview with DP/30 that Iñárritu left because he began production on another film, Biutiful.
13. Here Laverty draws on Zinn’s description of the Conquistadors chasing down Native Americans with dogs. In A People’s History of the United States Zinn writes,
Laverty also draws on Zinn’s account when constructing a disturbing scene within Sebastian’s film where the Spaniards use dogs to chase down Hatuey and his people.
14. Even the Rain pays homage here to Fellini’s La Dolce Vita (1960), a film that opens with shots of a helicopter carrying a Christ statue over the city of Rome.
15. Laverty’s imagination of Sebastian’s film relies on minor details from Zinn’s historical account. For instance, Zinn describes the Arawak Indians as wearing “tiny gold ornaments in their ears” (3). Here Anton improvises on stage directions for Sebastian’s film when he decides to pull at the waitress’s gold earring and inquire about where the gold is.
16. Even the Rain’s representation of the protests and curfew draws on events that took place in Cochabamba between January and April of 2000. Jim Shultz describes how up to 10,000 people gathered in the city square: “Many of the people were from the city, but thousands of others had marched long distances from the countryside and had been there for days” (23). In response, “The government declared an emergency and brought in military forces to quell the protests: “Constitutional rights were suspended; a curfew and a ban on meetings were imposed; and soldiers shut off radio broadcasts in midsentence” (25). [return to page 3]
17. See Thomas Dawson’s interview with Paul Laverty in “On the Side of the Angels.”
18. This is also one of the most self-referential moments in the film, raising questions about the ethics of Even the Rain’s production team. In an interview with DP/30, Bollaín mentions that her crew was self-conscious when making the film about whether they were exploiting the Bolivians. She adds that, “At least it was in our aim to listen to the people we were going to work with.” To this end, her team asked the local communities what they wanted by way of compensation. On a couple of occasions, the communities urged the filmmakers to not only pay the extras but also contribute toward the community as a whole. Bollaín claims that this experience taught her to depart from a narrowly individualistic mode of thinking.
19. “[O]n the afternoon of Monday, April 10, the government made an announcement. Officials of Bechtel’s company, who sat out days of violence watching it on television in a five-star hotel and insisting they wouldn’t leave, had fled to the airport and left the country. The Bolivian government declared the contract canceled, saying in a letter to Bechtel’s people, “Given that the directors of your enterprise have left the city of Cochabamba and were not to be found . . . said contract is rescinded” (Shultz 26).
20. David Harvey points out,
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