Dorothy Arzner's trousers
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1. Judith Butler, "Imitation and Gender Insubordination" in Inside/Out: Lesbian Theories, Gay Theories, ed. Diana Fuss (New York and London: Routledge, 1991), 14-16.

2. Constance Penley, Feminism and Film Theory (New York and London: Routledge, 1988).

3. Claudia Gorbman. "Trance Girls Trance: Seeing and Reading Dorothy Arzner," paper delivered at Duke University, October, 1985. The first significant reference to the silence about Arzner and the representation of lesbians in feminist film theory is Sara Halprin, "Writing on the Margins." (Review of E. Ann Kaplan, Women and Film: Both Sides of the Camera), JUMP CUT no. 29 (1984).

4. Judith Mayne, The Woman at the Keyhole: Feminism and Women's Cinema (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1990), chapter 5. The idea of "two Dorothys" is emphasized more strongly in another version of this chapter published as "Lesbian Looks: Dorothy Arzner and Female Authorship," in How Do I Look? Queer Film and Video, eds. Bad Object-Choices (Seattle: Bay Press, 1991), 106-107. In October, 1990, I delivered an earlier version of this paper at a Symposium sponsored by the Pittsburgh International Lesbian and Gay Film Festival and the Film Studies Program at the University of Pittsburgh, not knowing until later that I was "pinch hitting" for Judith Mayne. My rewriting has been considerably influenced by her significant work, particularly on this point

5. See Claire Johnston, ed. The Work of Dorothy Arzner: Towards a Feminist Cinema (London: British Film Institute, 1975), but I refer to the short passage in Johnston's more available essay "Women's Cinema as Counter-Cinema," in Notes on Women's Cinema (London: Society for Education in Film and Television, 1973). 29; repr. Sexual Stratagems, ed. Patricia Erens (New York Horizon, 1979; Movies and Methods, ed. Bill Nichols (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1976).

6. See Jean-Louis Comolli and Jean Narboni, "Cinema/Ideology/ Criticism," Screen 12, no. 1 (Spring 1971), pp. 27-36 on the category "e" film; Barbara Klinger, "'Cinema/Ideology/Criticism' Revisited: The Progressive Text," Screen 25, no. 1 (January-February 1984), 30-44, is a good critique of this important article; repr. in somewhat different form in Film Genre Reader. Ed. Barry Grant (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1986).

7. See Jacquelyn Suter, "Feminine Discourse in CHRISTOPHER STRONG." Camera Obscura, no. 3-4 (Summer 1979), 135-50.

8. See, for instance, Claire Whitaker, "Hollywood Transformed. Interviews with Lesbian Viewers," Jump Cut Hollywood, Politics, and Counter-Cinema, ed. Peter Steven (New York: Praeger, 1985).

9. See my "Competing Glances: Reading Robert Mapplethorpe's Black Book," New Formations, no. 16 (April 1992).

10. Adrienne Rich, Blood, Bread, and Poetry (New York and Lon-don: W.W. Norton, 1986), 51.

11. Diana Fuss,"Inside/Out," in Inside/Out, 3-4.

12. Alex Doty, "Lesbian and Gay Cultures Meet Auteurism," paper given at University of Pittsburgh Film Studies Symposium on George Cukor and Dorothy Arzner (October 1990).

13. I am indebted to Julia Lesage for helping me to recall this time, but also for articulating the significance of lesbian feminism for me almost fifteen years ago.

14. Karen Kay and Gerald Peary, 'Interview with Dorothy Arzner," in Women and the Cinema, eds. Karen Kay and Gerald Peary (New York: E.P. Dutton, 1977). The interview first appeared in Cinema, no. 34 (1974).

15. See Alice Echols, Daring to be Bad: Radical Feminism in America, 1967-1975 (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1989), 215.

16. Stuart Hall, "What is the Black in Black Popular Culture?", paper delivered at the Black Popular Culture Conference, Dia Center for the Arts and the Studio Museum of Harlem, New York (December 1991).

17. On the political significance of authorship for feminism, see Nancy K. Miller, Subject to Change: Reading Feminist Writing (New York: Columbia University Press, 1986), 106. Kaja Silverman, The Acoustic Mirror: The Female Voice in Psychoanalysis and Cinema (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1988), 212-17, suggests that the female author may be inscribed in the text in a variety of ways, including through voice or character.

18. Richard Dyer, "Believing in Fairies: The Author and the Homosexual," in Inside/Out, 188.

19. For an overview of the importance of melodrama in film theory  see Christine Gledhill, "Introduction," in Home is Where the Heart Is: Studies in Melodrama and the Woman's Film (London: British Film Institute, 1987).

20. See Paul Willeman, "Distanciation and Douglas Sirk," Douglas Sirk, ed. Laura Mulvey and Jon Halliday (Edinburgh Film Festival, 1972).

21. Andrew Ross, No Respect: Intellectuals and Popular Culture (New York and London: Routledge, 1989), 157, says that the lived spectatorship of gay male and lesbian subcultures is expressed largely through imaginary or displaced relations to the straight meanings of the images and discourses of a parent culture.

22. Mayne, "Lesbian Looks," 120, argues that the "acquisition of heterosexuality becomes the downfall" of the character.

23. For a discussion of this film see Michelle Citron, "Comic Critique The Films of Jan Oxenberg," in Jump Cut: Hollywood, Politics, and Counter-Cinema.

24. Karyn Kay and Gerald Peary, "Dorothy Arzner's DANCE, GIRL DANCE," The Velvet Light Trap no. 10, (Fall 1973), 26. For an analysis of this subgenre see Charlotte Herzog, "Powder Puff Promotion: The Fashion Show-in-the-Film," in Fabrications: Costume and the Female Body, eds. Jane M. Gaines and Charlotte Herzog (New York and London: Routledge, 1989).

25. Vito Russo, The Celluloid Closet: Homosexuality in the Movies (New York Harper and Row, 1985). 27.

26. Edith Becker, Michelle Citron, Julia Lesage, and B. Ruby Rich, "Lesbians and Film," in Jump Cut: Hollywood, Politics, and Counter-Cinema, 301.

27. Esther Newton, Mother Camp: Female Impersonators in America (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1972). 109.

28. Jack Babuscio, "Camp and the Gay Sensibility," in Gays in Film, ed. Richard Dyer (New York Zoetrope, 1984), 43, sees in camp "an emphasis on sensuous surfaces, textures, imagery and the evocation of mood as stylistic devices — not simply because they are appropriate to the plot, but as fascinating in and of themselves."

29. See Richard Dyer, Heavenly Bodies: Film Stars and Society (London: Macmillan, 1987), 55 on Marilyn Monroe and female sexual wetness.

30. David Chierichetti, Hollywood Costume Design (New York Crown, 1976).

31. Mayne, "Lesbian Looks," 120, says that "virginity" stands for all of the marginal positions Cynthia inhabits.

32. Beverle Houston, "Missing in Action: Notes on Dorothy Arzner," Wide Angle 6, no. 3 (1984), 27.

33. See Richard Dyer. "Children of the Night: Vampirism as Homosexuality, Homosexuality as Vampirism," In Sweet Dreams: Sexuality, Gender and Popular Fiction, ed. Susannah Radstone, (London: Lawrence and Wishart, 1988).

34. Jane Gaines, "Costume and Narrative: How Dress Tells the Woman's Story," in Fabrications: Costume and the Female Body, 192-96.

35. Alexander Walker, Joan Crawford: The Ultimate Star (New York: Harper and Row, 1983), 116.

36. Fredrick Engels, The Origin of the Family, Private Property, and the State (1884; repr. Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1972); Thorstein Veblen, The Theory of the Leisure Class: An Economic Study of Institutions (1899; repr. New York Macmillan, 1912).

37. For an overview of the different ways in which the star image has been broken down see my Contested Culture: The Image, the Voice, and the Law (Chapel Hill. NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1990). 33-40.

38. Richard Dyer, Stars (London: British Film Institute, 1979). 146-148.

39. Barry King, conversation, fall, 1989.

40. Dyer, Heavenly Bodies: Film Stars and Society, 178-185.

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