1. Randall P. Bezanson, Too Much Free Speech? (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2012), 7-10. [return to text]

2. Jeffrey P. Jones, “Fox & Friends’ Fear Factor: Performing Ideology in Morning Talk,” in How to Watch Tele- vision: Media Criticism in Practice, eds. Ethan Thompson and Jason Mittell (New York: New York University Press, 2013), 189.

3. Jeffrey P. Jones, “Fox News and the Performance of Ideology,” Cinema Journal 51.4 (Summer 2012): 179.

4. See Eric Boehlert, “You can’t teach an old attack dog new tricks.” Salon.com (July 20, 2004).

5. Fred Slocum and Yueh-Ting Lee, “Race, Racial Stereotypes, and American Politics” in The Psychology of Prejudice and Discrmination (Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO, 2010), 22.

6. Tali Mendelberg, The Race Card: Campaign Strategy, Implict Messages, and the Norm of Equality (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2001), 9.

7. W. J. T. Mitchell, What Do Pictures Want? The Lives and Loves of Images (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2005), 296.

8. Ibid.

9. Schweinitz, Jörg, Film and Stereotype: A Challenge for Cinema and Theory, trans. Laura Schleussner (New York: Columbia University Press, 2011), 28.

10. David Horowitz is a conservative author and talk-radio host. He makes regular appearances in conservative documentaries, where his criticism of leftists, socialists, and so-called “Marxist academics” is supposed to gain its authority from his own activity as a New Leftist in the 1960s prior to his rejection of leftism and conversion to conservative political ideology.

11. Some of the stock image houses and web resources used by Citizens United films include Streamline Films (http://www.streamlinefilms.com), Wazee Digital (http://www.wazeedigital.com), and Pond 5

12. Republican consultant and pollster, Frank Luntz, takes credit for the rhetorical substitution of exploration for drilling in contemporary conservative talking-points in Words that Work: It’s Not What You Say, It’s What People Hear (New York: Hyperion, 2007), 285.

13. Jones (2013), 188. See also Jones’ discussion of Sarah Palin in Jeffrey P. Jones, “Parody, Performativity, and Play” in A Companion to New Media Dynamics, eds. John Hartley, Jean Burgess, and Axel Bruns (West Sussex: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.), 396-406.

14. Roland Barthes, Elements of Semiology, trans. Annette Lavers and Colin Smith (New York: Hill and Wang, 1964), 19. [return to text]

Jones (2012), 179.

16. Bill Nichols, Representing Reality: Issues and Concepts in Documentary (Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press), 28.

17. Carl Plantinga, Rhetoric and Representation in Nonfiction Film (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997), 38.

18. Paul Ward, Documentary: The Margins of Reality (New York: Columbia University Press, 2013), [find page number].

19. Dirk Eitzen, “When is a Documentary?: Documentary as a Mode of Reception” Cinema Journal 35.1 (Autumn 1995): 87.

20. Ibid.

21. Kathleen Hall Jamieson and Joseph N. Cappella, Echo Chamber: Rush Limbaugh and the Conservative Media Establishment (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008).

22. Jay Leyda, Films Beget Films: A Study of the Compilation Film (New York: Hill and Wang, 1964), 14-15.

23. Ibid., 22.

24. As I have already noted and will continue to discuss, producers (or aggregators) of stock footage maximize profits by licensing images that may be used for a wide variety of applications. The same holds true for the appropriation of archival and found footage. Television footage of the planes crashing into the World Trade Towers on 9/11 is just one telling example. On Fox News throughout the “War on Terror,” recourse to images of the Towers served as melodramatic justification for George W. Bush’s aggressive foreign policy. By contrast, in Michael Moore’s Bowling for Columbine (2002), similar footage is used in a montage meant to represent 9/11 as the culminating example of blowback for U.S. involvement in various covert operations during the 20th, including the training and support of Osama Bin Laden in fighting against the Soviets in Afghanistan. In just these two instances, the same footage serves as illustration for two completely opposed political positions, not to mention two fundamentally different accounts of recent historical events.

25. Jamie Baron, The Archive Effect: Found Footage and the Audiovisual Experience of History (London and New York: Routledge, 2014), 39.

26. Ibid.

27. Catherine Russell, Experimental Ethnography: The Work of Film in the Age of Video (Durham and London: Duke University Press, 1999), 255.

28. Paul Frosh, The Image Factory: Consumer Culture, Photography and the Visual Content Industry (New York: Berg, 2003), 72.

29. Ibid., 74.

30. Jodi Dean, Democracy and Other Neo-Liberal Fantasies: Communicative Capitalism and Left Politics (Durham: Duke University Press, 2009), 22.

31. Christian Metz discusses the use of optical transitions in narrative cinema with related semiotic terms, but he treats optical transitions, like lap-dissolves, as syntagmic procedures. My analysis treats such visible transitions as paradigmatic because the appropriation of actual headlines for the purposes of formal transition appropriates historical content and then deploys them in the mode of a formal transition. Metz, Christian. The Imaginary Signifier: Psychoanalysis and the Cinema,trans. Celia Britton, Anwyl Williams, Ben Brewster, and Alfred Guzzetti(Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1982), 193-94. [return to text]

32. Mark Andrejevic, Infoglut: How Too Much Information Is Changing the Way We Think and Know (New York: Routledge), 118.

33. See also Micahel Barkun’s discussion of birther and other conspiracies that proliferate online, what he terms digital “subculture[s] based upon nonfalsfiable beliefs.” Michael Barkun, A Culture of Conspiracy: Apocalyptic Visions in Contemporary America 2nd Edition (Berkley: University of California Press, 2013), 185.

34. Andrejevic, 119.

35. Lippman, Walter. Public Opinion (New York: Harcourt, Brace, & Company, Inc., 1922), 95.

36. Hofstadter, Richard. The Paranoid Style in American Politics and Other Essays (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1965), 38.

37. Anker, Elisabeth R. Orgies of Feeling: Melodrama and the Politics of Freedom (Durham: Duke University Press, 2014).

38. See Scott Krzych, “The Price of Knowledge: Hysterical Discourse in Anti-Michael Moore Documentaries,” The Comparatist 39 (October 2015): 80-100.

39. Alterman, Eric. Kabuki Democracy: The System vs. Barack Obama (New York: Nation Books, 2011), 100-06.

40. Zaitchick, Alexander. Common Nonsense: Glenn Beck and the Triumph of Ignorance (Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2010), 150-59.

41. Brock, David, and Ari Rabin-Havt. The Fox Effect: How Roger Ailes Turned a Network Into a Propaganda Machine (New York: Anchor Books, 2012), 104-42.