2. The Dakota Access Pipeline (DAPL) is a $3.7 billion infrastructure project built by Texas-based company Energy Transfer Partners. The pipeline can transport 470,000 barrels of oil a day from North Dakota to storage facilities in Illinois and on to refineries. The first camp in opposition to the pipeline was established in April of 2016. The camps were cleared in February of 2017.
3. Energy Transfer Partners hired North Carolina-based private security firm TigerSwan to conduct multi-level surveillance of the encampment; this included digital and aerial surveillance as well as infiltration of the camps. Alleen Brown, Will Parrish, and Alice Speri, “Leaked Documents Reveal Counterterrorism Tactics Used at Standing Rock to ‘Defeat Pipeline Insurgencies.’” The Intercept, May 27, 2017, accessed March 16, 2019, http://www.theintercept.com/2017/
4. For an overview of the relationship between the Lakota and the U.S. government, see Nick Estes, Our History is the Future: Standing Rock versus the Dakota Access Pipeline and the Long Tradition of Indigenous Resistance (New York: Verso, 2019).
5. Jaskiran Dhillon, “Introduction: Indigenous Resurgence, Decolonization, and Movements for Environmental Justice,” Environment and Society: Advances in Research 9 (2018), 1.
6. While this essay focuses on media representation, the importance of independent journalism at Standing Rock and the way movement organizers connected with media makers to combat mass media narratives cannot be overstated.
7. President Trump’s January 24, 2017, Executive Order directed the Army Corps of Engineers to expedite the review and approval process for the easement under Lake Oahe (the disputed section of the pipeline that crosses Mni Sose near where Water Protectors set up camps). Within two weeks of Trump’s order, Energy Transfer Partners had begun construction once more. For a timeline of the policy and legal milestones in the #NoDAPL struggle, see Rebecca Hersher, “Key Moments in the Dakota Access Pipeline Fight,” The Two-Way, NPR.com (February 22, 2017), accessed April 7, 2019, https://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2017/02/22/514988040/key-moments-in-the-dakota-access-pipeline-fight.
8. Josh Fox is an environmentalist and documentary filmmaker. Prior to co-directing Awake, he wrote, directed, and starred in How to Let Go of the World and Love All the Things Climate Can't Change (2016), though he is more widely known for his Oscar-nominated documentary film Gasland (2010), which addresses the dangers of hydraulic fracturing.
9. Janet Walker, “Standing with Standing Rock: Media, Mapping, and Survivance,” Media Fields 13 (February 2018).
10. Nick Estes, Awake: A Dream from Standing Rock (film review), Environmental History 23.2 (April 2018): 383–386.
11. For a critique of the mainstream environmental movement as a largely white and middle class concern that fails to address issues of social justice and the disproportionate effects of environmental degradation on communities of color, see the field-defining environmental justice scholarship of Robert D. Bullard, in particular Dumping in Dixie: Race Class and Environmental Quality, 3rd edition (New York: Routledge, 2000). For a deeper history of environmental justice that accounts for settler colonialism, see Estes’ Our History Is the Future.
12. The wet plate collodion photograph of Floris White Bull was taken by Shane Balkowitsch at Nostalgic Glass Wet Plate Studio in Bismarck, North Dakota. Nostalgic Glass Wet Plate Studio online portfolio, accessed March 14, 2019, https://nostalgicglasswetplatestudio.zenfolio.com/blog/2018/5/floris-white-bull.
13. Edward S. Curtis, The North American Indian (1907). Taschen published Curtis’ complete portfolios in 1997. The Muskegon Museum of Art in Michigan staged a critical reappraisal of Curtis’ work in 2017, and while the museum’s website does not host a page about the exhibit, it was reviewed and photographed by Sarah Rose Sharp for Hyperallergic on June 22, 2017, accessed March 14, 2019, https://hyperallergic.com/383706/a-critical-
14. In the twenty-first century, the fist has become an incredibly fluid symbol, showing up in contexts as varied as Occupy Wall Street, corporate advertising, conservative political movements, the Black Lives Matter movement, music marketing, and the Women’s March on Washington in 2017.
15. As White Bull states in her voiceover in Part I, “We are here to serve. We face death on the front lines. We will not be violent. We will not fight back in that way. We will not feed into the negativity. We won’t give that negativity life; we will not give it our life.”
16. The Standing Rock Youth Council became the International Indigenous Youth Council. As it states on their website, “The International Indigenous Youth Council (IIYC) was started and led by womxn and two-spirit peoples during the Standing Rock Indigenous Uprising of 2016 while peacefully protecting the Cannonball and Missouri Rivers against the construction of the Dakota Access Pipeline,” accessed March 16, 2019, https://indigenousyouth.org/about. [return to page 2]
17. The moments of Part I that do not contain White Bull’s voiceover are shot in a journalistic style and include short interviews with Water Protectors and observational filming of actions at and near the camps.
18. For a history of Indigenous resistance to U.S. settler colonialism and expansionism, see Roxanne Dunbar-Ortiz, An Indigenous Peoples' History of the United States (New York: Beacon, 2014). For a consideration of contemporary Indigenous resource struggles, see Leanne Betasamosake Simpson, As We Have Always Done: Indigenous Freedom Through Radical Resistance (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2017).
19. For example, the film includes news footage of the the Kalamazoo River oil spill of 2010 in Michigan, where an Enbridge pipeline burst and dumped bitumen into the river. The Kalamazoo spill remains one of the largest inland oil spills in U.S. history.
20. Robin Wall Kimmerer and Kathleen Dean Moore, “The white horse and the humvees—Standing Rock is offering us a choice,” Nation of Change, November 7, 2016, accessed March 16, 2019. https://www.nationofchange.org/
21. Kimmerer and Moore.
22. This signpost has been added to an exhibition at the National Museum of the American Indian in Washington D.C., “Nation to Nation: Treaties Between the United States and American Indian Nations.” The exhibition runs from 2014 to 2021. National Museum of the American Indian Website, accessed March 16, 2019. https://americanindian.si.edu/.
23. Floris White Bull, from the Coda to Awake: A Dream from Standing Rock (2017).
24. “Dakota Access Pipeline Leaks Start to Add Up,” The Takeaway, WNYC Studios, January 11, 2018, accessed March 16, 2019, https://www.wnycstudios.
25. “Standing Rock Sioux Tribe Renews Legal Challenge Against DAPL,” Standing Rock Sioux Tribe Website, accessed March 16, 2019, https://www.standingrock.org/content/standing-rock-sioux-tribe-renews-legal-challenge-against-dapl.
26. Eric Bradner, “A voter ID decision could impact Native Americans - and the Senate race - in North Dakota,” CNN, October 12, 2018, accessed March 16, 2019, https://www.cnn.com/2018/10/12/politics/north-dakota-voter-
27. Ashoka Mukpo, “Supreme Court Enables Mass Disenfranchisement of North Dakota’s Native Americans,” ACLU website, October 12, 2018, accessed March 16, 2019, https://www.aclu.org/blog/voting-rights/supreme-court-
28. Native Vote website, accessed March 16, 2019, http://www.nativevote.org/.
29. Native Vote Facebook page, accessed March 16, 2019, https://www.facebook.com/pg/nativevote/posts/. “Every Native Vote Counts”video, YouTube, September 25, 2019, accessed March 16, 2019, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Li2pH_0LdeU&feature
30. James Nord, “South Dakota passes law to discourage Keystone XL pipeline protests,” APNews, March 7, 2019, accessed March 16, 2019, https://www.apnews.com/198de2dc96094036b2941f72df0e6cb9
31. North Dakota State Senator Troy Heinert believes the laws will be challenged in the courts. James Nord, “South Dakota passes law to discourage Keystone XL pipeline protests,” Washington Post, March 7, 2019.
Balkowitsch, Shane. Nostalgic Glass Wet Plate Studio (Bismarck, North Dakota) Online Portfolio. Accessed March 14, 2019. https://nostalgicglasswetplatestudio.zenfolio.com/blog/2018/5/floris-white-bull.
Bradner, Eric. 2018. “A voter ID decision could impact Native Americans—and the Senate race —in North Dakota.” CNN. October 12, 2018. Accessed March 16, 2019. https://www.cnn.com/2018/10/12/politics/north-dakota-voter-id-native-americans/.
Brown, Alleen, Will Parrish, and Alice Speri. 2017. “Leaked Documents Reveal Counterterrorism Tactics Used at Standing Rock to ‘Defeat Pipeline Insurgencies.’” The Intercept, May 27, 2017. http://theintercept.com/2017/05/27/leaked-documents-reveal-security-firms-counterterrorism-tactics-at-standing-rock-to-defeat-pipeline-insurgencies/.
Bullard, Robert D. 2000. Dumping in Dixie: Race, Class, and Environmental Quality. 3rd edition. New York: Routledge.
Curtis, Edward. 1997. The North American Indian: The Complete Portfolios. Cologne, Germany: Taschen.
“Dakota Access Pipeline Leaks Start to Add Up.” 2018. The Takeaway. WNYC Studios. January 11, 2018. Accessed March 16, 2019. https://www.wnycstudios.org/story/across-country-smaller-pipeline-leaks-start-add.
Dhillon, Jaskiran. 2018. “Introduction: Indigenous Resurgence, Decolonization, and Movements for Environmental Justice,” Environment and Society: Advances in Research 9.
Dhillon, Jaskiran, and Nick Estes. 2016. "Introduction: Standing Rock, #NoDAPL, and Mni Wiconi." Hot Spots, Fieldsights. December 22. https://culanth.org/fieldsights/introduction-standing-rock-no-dapl-and-mni-wiconi.
Dunbar-Ortiz, Roxanne. 2014. An Indigenous Peoples' History of the United States. New York: Beacon.
Estes, Nick. 2018. Awake: A Dream from Standing Rock (film review). Environmental History 23.2 (April 2018): 383–386.
Estes, Nick. 2019. Our History is the Future: Standing Rock versus the Dakota Access Pipeline and the Long Tradition of Indigenous Resistance. New York: Verso.
Hersher, Rebecca. “Key Moments in the Dakota Access Pipeline Fight.” The Two-Way. NPR.com. February 22, 2017. Accessed April 7, 2019. https://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2017/02/22/514988040/key-moments-in-the-Dakota-access-pipeline-fight.
Kimmerer, Robin Wall and Kathleen Dean Moore. 2016. “The white horse and the humvees—Standing Rock is offering us a choice.” Nation of Change. November 7, 2016. Accessed March 16, 2019. https://www.nationofchange.org/2016/11/07/white-horse-humvees-standing-rock-offering-us-choice/.
Mukpo, Ashoka. “Supreme Court Enables Mass Disenfranchisement of North Dakota’s Native Americans.” ACLU Blog. October 12, 2018. Accessed March 16, 2019. http://aclu.org/blog/voting-rights/supreme-court-enables-mass-disenfranchisement-north-dakotas-native americans/.
“Nation to Nation: Treaties Between the United States and Native American Nations.” National Museum of the American Indian Website. Accessed March 16, 2019. https://americanindian.si.edu/.
Native Vote. 2018. “Every Native Vote Counts” Video. YouTube. September 25, 2019. Accessed March 16, 2019.
Native Vote Website. Accessed March 16, 2019. http://www.nativevote.org/.
Nord, James. 2019. “South Dakota passes law to discourage Keystone XL pipeline protests.” APNews. March 7, 2019. Accessed March 16, 2019. https://www.apnews.com/198de2dc96094036b2941f72df0e6cb9
Nostalgic Glass Wet Plate Studio Online Portfolio. 2018. Accessed March 14, 2019.
Sharp, Sarah Rose. 2017. “A Critical Understanding of Edward Curtis’s Photos of Native American Culture.” Hyperallergic. June 22, 2017. Accessed March 14, 2019. http://hyperallergic.com/383706/a-critical-understanding-of-edward-curtiss-photos-of-native-american-culture/.
Simpson, Leanne Betasamosake. 2017. As We Have Always Done: Indigenous Freedom Through Radical Resistance. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
“Standing Rock Sioux Tribe Renews Legal Challenge Against DAPL.” 2019. Standing Rock Sioux Tribe Website. Accessed March 16, 2019. https://www.standingrock.org/content/standing-rock-sioux-tribe-renews-legal-challenge-against-dapl.
Walker, Janet. 2018. “Standing with Standing Rock: Media, Mapping, and Survivance.” Media Fields 13 (February 2018).