1. Michel de Certeau, The Practice of Everyday Life (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1984), page 97. [return to page 1]

2. Council estates are government-built public housing.

3. “Joe Cornish on Attack the Block,” Short List, http://www.shortlist.com/entertainment/

4. Michel de Certeau, p. 140.

5. Bonfire Night, or Guy Fawkes Night, is celebrated in Great Britain every November 5 to commemorate the event in which a plot to blow up the British Parliament and kill King James I in 1605 was foiled. Fireworks, bonfires, and effigies of the chief plotter, Guy Fawkes, are part of the festivities.

5. Attack the Block, DVD Commentary, 2011.

7. Publically funded by a central government and local councils, New Towns in the UK were developed in the green belts of cheap land around urban centers to house middle- or working-class residents moving out of the cities or to alleviate urban overcrowding. The “garden city” ideal of low population density and livable space drove the concept of these suburban developments. In the UK, New Towns were primarily built between the 1940s-1960s, originally established to help rebuild post-war Britain through these semi-rural housing projects.

8. Reyner Banham, “The New Brutalism,” October 136 (Spring 2011), page 21.

9. James Donald, “The City, The Cinema: Modern Spaces,” Visual Culture, Ed. by Chris Jenks (London: Routledge, 1995), page 89.

10. Miles Glendinning and Stefan Muthesius, Tower Block: Modern Public Housing in England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1993), page 310.

11. Andrew Burke, “Concrete Universality: Tower Blocks, Architectural Modernism, and Realism in Contemporary British Cinema” New Cinemas: Journal of Contemporary Film 5.3 (November 2007), page 179.

12. Hugh Muir, “Deliberately Demoralising,” The Guardian 17 May 2005,

13. Loretta Lees, “The Urban Injustices of New Labour’s ‘New Urban Renewal’: The Case of the Aylesbury Estate in London,” Antipode 0.9 (2013), page 8.

14. In 2014, the residents of the Aylesbury estate enlisted the help of director, Nick Street, to shoot a video response to the grim Channel 4 ident from a decade earlier. Christopher Beanland describes it:

“The upbeat film follows the same trajectory as the original ident, but shows a selection of happy residents, representing the estate's many ethnic communities, playing and chatting. The buildings appear cleaner and better kept. It evokes pleasantly propagandist state-funded films of the past such as Living At Thamesmead and the Milton Keynes Red Balloon advert – both of which used social realism to portray everyday people as heroes making the best use of estates and new towns.”

See his article, “Channel 4's Aylesbury estate ident gets a revamp – starring the residents,” at The Guardian 14 March 2014, along with link to both videos here:

15. Charlotte Benstead, “South London estate residents hit back over negative Channel 4 images,” The Guardian 23 January 2014,

16. Peter Travers, “Attack the Block,” Rolling Stone 28 July 2011,

17. Sarah Ilott, “‘We are the martyrs, you’re just squashed tomatoes!’: Laughing through the Fears in Postcolonial British Comedy: Chris Morris’s Four Lions and Joe Cornish’s Attack the Block,” Postcolonial Text 8.2 (2013), page 3. [return to page 2]

18. Kenneth Chan, “The Construction of Black Identity in Black Action Films of the Nineties,” Cinema Journal 37.2 (Winter 1998), page 43.

19. Alice Coleman, “Design Influences in Blocks of Flats,” The Geographical Journal 150.3 (November 1984), page 351.

20. Attack the Block, DVD Commentary, 2011.

21. Attack the Block, DVD Commentary, 2011.

22. Attack the Block, DVD Commentary, 2011.

23. Kofi Outlaw, review of Attack the Block, 30 July 2011 Screen Rant, 22 February 2014,

24. Attack the Block, DVD Commentary, 2011.

25. Attack the Block, DVD Commentary, 2011.

26. Diane Reay and Helen Lucey, “‘I Don’t Really Like It Here but I Don’t Want to be Anywhere Else’: Children and Inner City Council Estates,” Antipode 32.4 (2000), page 422.

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