1. One could argue that this event, in which the man is ejected from the house, has little to do with the alien’s agency, that it is not she but the larger system that employs her, or the black pit, that rejects the body of this particular captive.
2. Sam Adams, “Space Oddity: Jonathan Glazer on Under the Skin,” Rolling Stone, April 4. 2014. http://www.rollingstone.com/movies/news/space
(Accessed April 21, 2015)
3. Ara Osterweil, “Under the Skin: The Perils of Becoming Female,” Film Quarterly, (Summer 2014), 46.
4. Lucas Hilderbrand “Out of the Blackness and Under the Skin,” Jump Cut, Spring 2016.
5. Linda Williams, Hard Core: Power Pleasure and the Frenzy of the Visible. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1989. 101-102.
6. Luce Irigaray, Speculum of the Other Woman, Gillian Gill, Trans. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1985. 144. [return to page 2]
7. Ian Bogost, Alien Phenomenology, or What It’s Like to be a Thing, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2012. 31.
8. Richard Grusin, ed. The Non-Human Turn, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2015. Significant works in this wide field of inquiry include, Bryant, Levi, Nick Srnicek, and Graham Harman, eds. The Speculative Turn: Continental Materialism and Realism. re. press, 2011. Levi Bryant, The Democracy of Objects, Open HumanitiesPress, 2011; much of this thought follows on the notion of “non-correlationism” forwarded in French philosopher Quentin Meillassoux’s After Finitude, which contends that Western philosophy’s basic error since the Enlightenment has been to posit a correlation between human thought and the world, what he calls “correlationism.” Quentin Meillassoux. After Finitude: An Essay on the Necessity of Contingency. Bloomsbury Publishing, 2010. See also Steven Shaviro for his account of non-correlationist thought, Shaviro, The Universe of Things: On Speculative Realism, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2015. On new materialist and vital materialist approaches, see Diana Coole, Samantha Frost, eds.. New Materialisms: Ontology Agency and Politics, Durham: Duke University Press, 2010; Jane Bennett, Vibrant Matter: A Political Ecology of Things, Durham: Duke University Press, 2009.
9. One anchoring notion within this body of thought is that of a “flat ontology,” (derived originally from Manuel DeLanda’s writing) which indicates a coevalness of things; each object has its own status as an individuated form, without criteria or distinction or hierarchy; Manuel DeLanda, Intensive Science and Virtual Philosophy, London: Bloomsbury, 2002, 2013. See also Bryant, The Democracy of Objects; and Bogost, Alien Phenomenology, for varying takes of this concept.
10. Graham Harman. Tool-being: Heidegger and the Metaphysics of Objects. Open Court Publishing, 2002; Harman, Graham. Guerrilla Metaphysics: Phenomenology and the Carpentry of Things. Open Court Publishing, 2005.
11. A political, identitarian critique of the “ontological turn” is most forcefully proposed by Jordana Rosenberg, who questions the return to ontology as a political symptom, and the fetishizing of contingency over collectivity and agency in, “On the Molecularization of Sexuality and some Primitivisms of the Present,” Theory and Event, Vol. 17, No. 2 (2014.) <http://muse.jhu.edu/article/546470> (Accessed Feb 12, 2016)
12. Glazer, in the Rolling Stone interview, refers to the eye in the opening as a Trojan Horse: “That eye is an interloper; it's a violation of something so intensely human, the human iris. It's somebody being inside us and looking at the world through this perfect disguise. It's a Trojan Horse.” Adams, 2014.
13. Irigaray, Speculum, 134.
14. Analyzing photography, film and visual art, Alessandra Raengo elaborates a theory of race as an ontology of the visual in her On the Sleeve of the Visual: Race as Face Value, Dartmouth: Dartmouth College Press, 2013.
15. Willow Maclay, among other critics, has written about the implications of the film as an allegory for the experience of the transgendered, “Shine On: Transgender Allegory in Under the Skin,” The Vulgar Cinema (Blog). March 10, 2015. <http://thevulgarcinema.com/2015/03/shine-on-transgender-
allegory-in-under-the-skin/> (Accessed February 15, 2016.)
See also, Tessa Racked, “The Alien Gender: Under the Skin,” Consistent Panda Bear Shape: Fat People in Cinema, (Blog) July 26, 2014.
-dir-jonathan-glazer/. (Accessed February 1, 2016)
16. Michel Faber, Under the Skin. Edinburgh: Canongate, 2000. 296.
17. Neferti X.M. Tadiar, "Life-Times of Becoming Human." Occasion: Interdisciplinary Studies in the Humanities v. 3 (March 1, 2012)
<http://occasion.stanford.edu/node/75> (Accessed February 8, 2016)
18. These notions are drawn from Karen Barad, “On Touching: The Inhuman that I Therefore Am,” differences. Vol. 23, No. 3: (2012) 219; see also, Karen Barad, Meeting the Universe Halfway, Durham: Duke University Press, 2007.
19. Jordana Rosenberg, “The Molecularization of Sexuality: On Some Primitivisms of the Present,” Theory and Event. 17.2 (2014) np.
<http://muse.jhu.edu/article/546470> (Accessed Feb 12, 2016)