1. Don Ihde, Listening and Voice: Phenomenologies of Sound. Albany: State University of New York Press, 2007. See especially chapter six, “The Auditory Field.” [return to text]

2. John Berger, “Some Notes About Song (for Yasmine Hamdan).” In his Confabulations. London: Penguin, 2016, 96.

3. Lina Khatib, Lebanese Cinema: Imaging the Civil War and Beyond. London: I.B. Tauris, 2008, 11, 58.

4. Ibid, xix.

5. Much of film and cinema in Lebanon tends to concentrate on the city of Beirut.

6. Rasha Salti, “When the National is Organic: The Very Short Story of Filmmaking, Being, and Subjectivity in Lebanon.” www.goethe.de/ins/eg/prj/abs/leb/en5364547.htm Accessed May, 2010.

7. Laura U. Marks, Touch: Sensuous Theory and Multisensory Media. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2002, 12.

8. Ibid, 133.

9. On hermeneutic embodiment, see Vivian Sobchack, Carnal Thoughts: Embodiment and Moving Image Culture. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2004, especially chapter 1 “Breadcrumbs in the Forest.”

10. Joseph Fahim, “A General’s Daughter: Meet the Filmmaker Who Defied Lebanese Censors”. Middle East Eye, April 24, 2018. https://www.middleeasteye.net/features/generals-daughter-meet-filmmaker-who-defied-lebanese-censors

11. For a discussion of the problem see, for example, Kirsten O’Regan’s article, “A Day Out and a Union: Lebanon’s Domestic Workers Organize”. Dissent,  Fall 2017,  https://www.dissentmagazine.org/article/lebanon-domestic-workers-organize-union-kafala

12. I developed this notion in an earlier work on memory and cultural production in Lebanon, adapting the term from Toni Morrison’s novel Beloved. See my The Fragmenting Force of Memory: Self, Literary Style, and Civil War in Lebanon. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge scholars, 2012.

13. Aseel Sawalha, “After Amnesia: Memory and War in Two Lebanese Films.” Visual Anthropology, Vol 27, Nos 1-2, 2014, 105-116.

14. Olivia Snaije, “Film-maker still trying to find the right formula for Lebanese audiences and censors.” The Daily Star, January 20, 2003. http://www.dailystar.com.lb/ArticlePrint.aspx?id=110166&mode=print

15. On “mediality” and an accompanying notion of “gesture in its mediality,” see Jill Bennett, Practical Aesthetics: Events, Affects and Art After 9/11. London: I B Tauris, 2012, 120.

16. Mark Westmoreland, “Catastrophic Subjectivity: Representing Lebanon’s Undead”. Alif: Journal of Comparative Poetics. Issue theme: Trauma and Memory. No 30, 2010, 182.

17. I’ll return to this theme in my conclusion.

18. It should be also observed that local NGOs, such as UMAM Documentation and Research and Zico House, hold in-house screenings of films that otherwise do not gain permission for public release. Such screenings often involve discussion sessions with the filmmakers. For a more considered discussion of film funding and viewing in Lebanon and the Arab countries more generally, see Laura Marks, Hanan al-Cinema: Affections for the Moving Image. Massachusetts: MIT Press, 2015, especially chapter 1, “Cinematic Friendships: Intercessors, Collectives, Perturbations.”

19. Andreea Petru, “Breaking the Sychronicity: An Interview with Rana Eid.” Senses of Cinema, Issue 88, October 2017. https://www.sensesofcinema.com/2018/feature-articles/breaking-the-synchronicity-an-interview-with-rana-eid/

20. See Lina Ghaibeh’s twelve minute animation film of 2012—Burj el Murr: Tower of Bitterness. https://vimeo.com/93245013

21. Music for the film was composed by Nadim Mishlawi, who among his credits has worked on a number of the films of Mohamed Soueid.

22. To provide some historical context, 1982 was a particularly long year of war and violence. According to a report by the United States’ based International Center for Transitional Justice, during the second half of the year Israel’s siege and “indiscriminate blanket bombardment” of Beirut resulted in some 29,506 deaths, of which 80% were civilians. Lebanon’s Legacy of Political Violence: A Mapping of Serious Violations of International Human Rights and Humanitarian Law in Lebanon, 1975-2008, 2013, 36. https://www.ictj.org/sites/default/files/ICTJ-Report-Lebanon-Mapping-2013-EN_0.pdf

23. Nadim Jarjoura, “About Panoptic: Interview with Rana Eid”. Mec Film. July, 2017. https://mecfilm.de/fileadmin/user_upload/documents/

24. Sigmund Freud, Civilization and Its Discontents. Translated by James Strachey. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1981. [return to page 2]

25. Ibid, 16-17.

26. See her essay “Melancholy Gender/Refused Identification”. In M. Berger et al (eds) Constructing Masculinity. New York: Routledge, 1995.

27. Laura U. Marks. “Mohamed Soueid’s Cinema of Immanence”. Jump Cut: A Review of Contemporary Media. No. 49, Spring 2007. For more on Soueid’s trilogy, see my chapter “Between Mourning and Melancholia: Memory and Nurture in Mohamed Soueid’s Tango of Yearning”. In my The Fragmenting Force of Memory: Self, Literary Style, and Civil War in Lebanon. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars, 2012.

28. See endnote 19.

29. Michel Foucault, Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison. Translated by Alan Sheridan. New York: Vintage, 1995, 202-203.

30. Sara Ahmed, Queer Phenomenology: Orientations, Objects, Others. Durham: Duke University Press, 2006, 109-110.

31. Intergenerational approaches to the civil war and its aftermath are only beginning to attract critical attention. In respect to literary production in Lebanon, see Syrine Hout, Post-War Anglophone Lebanese Fiction: Home Matters in The Diaspora. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2012, especially the introduction. See also chapter 2 of my Milieus of ReMemory (see note 31). Concerning art practitioners and interventionist archivists he calls “jeel al-harb” (war generation), see Chad Elias, Posthumous Images: Contemporary Art and Memory Politics in Post-Civil War Lebanon. Durham: Duke University Press, 2018, 4.

32. Among their respective films, I mention Naous’s Home Sweet Home (2014), and Raheb’s Sleepless Nights (2012), two films I have previously written about. For the former, see “Ya ‘Ayb al-Shoum: Scenes of Auto/Bio/Graphy and Shame in Nadine Naous’s Home Sweet Home”. In Life Writing, Vol. 15. 211-226. For the latter, see chapter 4 of my Milieus of ReMemory: Relationalities of Violence, Trauma, and Voice. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars, 2019.

33. Gamal Abdel Nassar overthrew the Egyptian monarchy in 1952, and embarked on a number of economic and social reforms. He became a figure head for a burgeoning sense of Arab pride and confidence, particularly after he nationalized the Suez Canal, which had been controlled by the British and French. I adapt his name here loosely to refer to the generation of Eid’d parents.

34. Interviewed by Hannah Dimashq on Cairo’s ONTV, December 2013. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n1-Q8wlxNpI

35. See endnote 19.